Folklore and Writings of St. Patrick
Lyrics and Verse

St. Patrick was a gentleman who through strategy and stealth drove all the snakes from Ireland here's a toasting to his health. But not too many toastings lest you loose yourself and  then forget the good St. Patrick and see all those snakes again.

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Main Menu Verse and Music

The Confession of St. Patrick s written,   . . . . . . . .  455

 The Epistle to Coroticus,   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   456

 The Metrical Life of St. Patrick by St. Fiech,    493

The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick by St. McEvin,   . . .

The Life of St. Patrick by Jocelyn,   . . . .

Short Quotes

Patrick Was a Gentleman

Patrick's Arrival

Song to St. Patrick

Hail Glorious St. Patrick

About Snakes and Shamrocks

St. Sechnall On St. Patrick

All Praise to St. Patrick

St. Patricks Breastplate

Letter to Coroticus

St. Patrick's Holy Day

James Hughes on St. Patrick Lore

Paddy is the Boy

Pat and the Priest

The Monks of St. Patrick Account of...


Everybodys Irish

Hymn of Fiacc

The Proclamation

Pergatory of St. Patrick

The Monks of the Orded of St. Patrick Poem and long Article



Hymn of St. Secundinus





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The Hymn of Fiacc
-an important primary reference 5th century.

1.  Patrick was born at Emptur:
    This it is that history relates to us.
    A child of sixteen years (was he)
    When he was taken into bondage.

2.  Succat was his name, it is said;
    Who was his father is thus told:
    He was son of Calpurn, son of Otidus,
    Grandson of Deochain Odissus.

3.  He was six years in slavery;
    Human food he ate it not.
    Cothraige he was called,
    For as slave he served four families.

4.  Victor said to Milcho's slave:
    "Go thou over the sea:"
    He placed his foot upon the *leac* (stone):
    Its trace remains, it wears not away.

5.  He sent him across all the Alps;
    Over the sea marvellous was his course,
    Until he stayed with Germanus in the south,
    In southern Letha.

6.  In the islands of the Tyrrhene Sea he stayed;
    Therein he meditated:
    He read the canon with Germanus:
    It is this that history relates.

7.  To Ireland he was brought back
    In visions by the angels of God:
    Often was he in vision
    Solicited to return thither again.

8.  Salvation to Ireland
    Was the coming of Patrick to Fochlaidh;
    Afar was heard the sound
    Of the call of the youths of Caill-Fochladh.

9.  They prayed that the saint would come,
    That he would return from Letha,
    To convert the people of Erin
    From error to life.

10. The Tuatha of Erin were prophesying
    That a new kingdom of faith would come,
    That it would last for evermore:
    The land of Tara would be waste and silent.

11. The druids of Loegaire concealed not from him
    The coming of Patrick;
    Their  prophecy was verified
    As to the kingdom of which they spoke.

12. Patrick walked in piety till his death:
    He was powerful in the extirpation of sin:
    He raised his hands in blessing
    Upon the tribes of men.

13. Hymns, and the Apocalypse, and the thrice fifty (psalms)
    He was wont to sing;
    He preached, baptized and prayed;
    From the praise of God he ceased not.

14. The cold of the weather deterred him not
    From passing the night in ponds:
    By heaven his kingdom was protected;
    He preached by day on the hills.

15. In Slan, in the territory of Benna-Bairche,
    Hunger or thirst possessed him not.
    Each night he sang a hundred psalms,
    To adore the King of angels.

16  He slept on a bare stone,
    And a wet sack-cloth around him;
    A bare rock was his pillow;
    He allowed not his body to be in warmth.

17. He preached the Gospel to all;
    He wrought great miracles in Letha;
    He healed the lame and the lepers;
    The dead he restored to life.

18. Patrick preached to the Scoti:
    He endured great toil in Letha:
    With him will come to judgment
    Everyone whom he brought to the life of Faith.

19. The sons of Emer, the sons of Eremon,
    All went to Cisal,
    To the abode of Satan --
    They were swallowed up in the deep abyss,

20. Until the apostle came to them:
    He came despite the raging tempests:
    He preached, for three-score years,
    The cross of Christ to the tribes of Feni.

21. On the land of Erin there was darkness;
    The Tuatha adored the -sidhi-;
    They believed not
    In the true Deity of the true Trinity.

22. In Armagh there is sovereignty;
    It is long since Emain passed away;
    A great church is Dun-Lethglasse;
    I wish not that Tara should be a desert.

23. Patrick, when he was in sickness,
    Desired to go to Armagh:
    An angel went to meet him on the road
    In the middle of the day.

24. Patrick came southwards towards Victor;
    He it was that went to meet him;
    The bush in which Victor was, was in a blaze;
    From the flame (the angel) spoke.

25. He said:  Thy dignity (shall be) at Armagh;
    Return thanks to Christ;
    To heaven thou shalt come;
    Thy prayer is granted thee.

26. The hymn which thou chosest in life
    Shall be corselet of protection to all.
    Around thee on the Day of Judgment
    The men of Erin will come for judgment.

27. Tassach remaineth after him (in Sabhall),
    Having given the communion to him:
    He said that Patrick would return:
    The word of Tassach was not false.

28. He (St. Patrick) put an end to night;
    Light ceased not with him:
    To a years' end there was radiance;
    It was a long day of peace.

29. At the battle fought around Beth-horon
    Against the Canaanites by the son of Nun,
    The sun stood still at Gaboan;
    This it is that the Scripture tells us.

30. The sun lasted with Josue unto the death of the wicked:
    This indeed was befitting;
    It was more befitting that there should be radiance
    At the death of the saints.

31. The clergy of Erin went from every part
    To watch around Patrick;
    The sound of harmony fell upon them,
    So that they slept enchanted on the way.

32.  Patrick's body from his soul
     Was severed after pains;
     The angels of God on the first night
     Kept choir around it unceasingly.

33.  When Patrick departed (from life)
     He went to visit the other Patrick;
     Together they ascended
     To Jesus, Son of Mary.

34.  Patrick, without arrogance or pride,
     Great was the good which he proposed to himself,
     To be in the service of Mary's Son;
     Happy the hour in which Patrick was born.

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Short Quotes

In Down three saints one grave do fill,Brigid, Patrick and Columcille.- John De Courcy,1219

St. Patrick had no politics; his sympathies lay with the right- that was politics enough. When he came across a reptile, he forgot to inquire whether he was a Democrat or a Republican, but simply exalted his staff and "let him have it."
- Mark Twain Letter Read at a Dinner of the Knights of St. Patrick, 3/16/1876

I am Patrick, a sinner, the least learned of men, least of all the faithful most worthless in the eyes of many-St Patrick,Confessions.

Now it’s love since you’ll have me, I’ll pray you remember.
You must use me genteel, for you know I’m but tender,
She was three-score and ten on the nineteenth of November,
On Patrick’s Day in the Morning
- Annon,19th Century-”On Patrick’s Day in the Morning”

When good Saint Patrick banished snakes he shook’em from his garments. He never thought we’d go abroad to live among such varmints.
Now quit this land where whiskey brews to wear the Yankee button- Take vinegar for mountain dew and toads for mountain mutton!

Proud Caesar fell down right before him,
And groveled his length as he lay
Then he knelt to the Saint, to adore him,
But Fin-ma-Cool dragged him away,
He rose, seemed desirous to linger,
So Brian Boru bade him “Go”
Saint Patrick, he lifted his finger,
But Fin-ma-Cool lifted his toe.
-New Ode to St. Patrick,J.C.Wilson.

...not to use water for drink,
The people of Ireland determine
With mighty good reason, I think,
Since St Patrick has filled I with vermin
And vipers and other such stuff!

You’ve heard I suppose, long ago,
How the snakes, in a manner most antic
He marched to the County Mayo,
And trundled them into th’ Atlantic
-William Maginn

Hear ye, all that love God, of the merits of a man blessed in Christ, Patrick the Bishop, like to the angels because of his good works and equal to the apostles in the sanctity of his life-Sechnall.

Anyone acquainted with Ireland knows that the morning of St. Patrick’s Day consists of the night of the 17th of march flavored strongly with the morning of the 18th- Robert J. Martin

There’s a dear little plant that grows in our isle, T’was St. Patrick himself sure that set it...It thrives through the bog, through the mireland . And he called it the dear little shamrock of Ireland-Andrew Cherry

Ireland never was contented....Say you so?
You are demented!
Ireland was contented when.
All could use the sword an pen.
And when Tara rose so high.
That her turrets split the sky,
And about her courts were seen
Liveried angels robed in green
Wearing by St. Patrick’s Bounty
Emeralds Big as half the county

St. Patrick’s Day the warm side of a stone turns up, and the broad-back of the goose begins to lay inwards-Proverb

On the high day of Patrick, every fold will have a cow-calf, and every pool a salmon-Gaelic Saying

St. Patrick’s, the holy and tutular man
His beard down his bosom like Aaron’s ran:
Some from Scotland, some from Wales, will declare that he came,
But I care not from whence now he’s risen to fame;
The pride of the world and his enemies scorning
I will drink to St. Patrick, today in the Morning!

He’s a desperate big, little Erin go brah;
He will pardon our follies and promise us joy,
By the mass, by the Pope, by St. Patrick so long
As I live, I will give him a beautiful song!
No saint is so good, Ireland’s country adorning:
Then hail to St. Patrick, today, in the morning!
-Traditional Dublin Song

St. Patrick, as in legends told,
The morning being very cold,
In order to assuage the weather,
Collected bits of ice together;
Then gently breathed upon the pyre,
When every fragment blazed on fire.
Oh! If the saint had been so kind
As to have left the gift behind
To such a lovelorn wretch as me,
Who daily struggles to be free
I’d be content-content with part
I’d only ask to thaw the heart,
The frozen heart, of Polly Roe.

There were a good many Irish around O'Neill and they often talked about snakes and how St. Patrick drove them out of Ireland. They way they tell it the soil was cursed for snakes and some snakes could live on it. A man in Omaha, it is said, has a box of soil from Ireland and several [??] one your neighbors claims, he placed snakes in this box and they died quick. The cowboys think that if they lay down a coil of rope around their bed. That no snake will crawl over it, but snakes just don't crawl at night so it seems to work then -Interview taken by Harold J. Moss of  C. H. Krause, 2040 Monroe St., Lincoln, Nebraska  1939,. Federal Writers Project.

Patrick and the Serpent (St.).

According to tradition, St. Patrick cleared Ireland of its vermin; one old serpent resisted him; but St. Patrick  overcame it by cunning. He made a box, and invited the serpent to enter it. The serpent objected, saying it
was too small; but St. Patrick insisted it was quite large enough to be comfortable. After a long contention,
 the serpent got in to prove it was too small, when St. Patrick slammed down the lid, and threw the box into the
 sea. To complete this wonderful tale, the legend says the waves of the sea are made by the writhings of this serpent, and the noise of the sea is that of the serpent imploring the saint to release it.

Patrick’s Purgatory (St.),

                        Ireland, described in the Italian romance called Guerino Meschino. Here gourmands are tantalised with
                        delicious banquets which elude their grasp, and are at the same time troubled with colic. (See TANTALUS.)

 Patrick’s Monument (St.),

                        In the cemetery of Downpatrick cathedral. Visitors are shown the spot where the “saint” was buried, but, on  asking why there is no memorial, is informed that both Protestants and Catholics agreed to erect a suitable
one, but could not agree upon the inscription. Whatever the Protestants erected in the day the Catholics
 pulled down at night, and vice versâ. Tired of this toil of Penelop, the idea was abandoned, and the grave  was left unmarked by monumental stone.

Patrick’s Grave (St.),  In the yard of Downpatrick cathedral. The visitor is shown a spot where some of the mould has been removed,  and is told that pilgrims take away a few grains as a charm, under the belief that the relic will insure good
health, and help to atone for sin.


                        Chambers says, “We can trace the footsteps of St. Patrick almost from his cradle to his grave by the names of  places called after him.” Thus, assuming the Scottish origin, he was born at Kil-patrick (the cell of Patrick), in
 Dumbartonshire; he resided for some time at Dal-patrick (the district of Patrick), in Lanarkshire; and visited
Cragphadrig (the rock of Patrick), near Inverness. He founded two churches, Kirk-patrick in Kirkcudbright,
 and Kirk-patrick in Dumfries; and ultimately sailed from Port-patrick, leaving behind him such an odour of
sanctity that among the most distinguished families of the Scottish aristocracy Patrick has been a favourite   name down to the present day.
Arriving in England, he preached at Patter-dale (Patrick’s valley), in Westmoreland; and founded the
 church of Kirk-patrick, in Durham. Visiting Wales, he walked over Sarn-badrig (causeway of Patrick), which
 now forms a dangerous shoal in Carnarvon Bay; and, departing for the Continent, sailed from Llan-badrig
(church of Patrick), in the isle of Anglesea. Undertaking his mission to convert the Irish, he first landed at
 Innis-patrick (island of Patrick), and next at Holm-patrick, on the opposite shore of the mainland, in the
county of Dublin. Sailing northwards, he touched at the Isle of Man, called Innis-patrick, where he founded
another church of Kirk-patrick, near the town of Peel. Again landing on the coast of Ireland, in the county of
Down, he converted and baptised the chieftain Dichu on his own threshing-floor, an event perpetuated in the
word Saul—i.e. Sabbal-patrick (barn of Patrick). He then proceeded to Temple-patrick, in Antrim; and from
thence to a lofty mountain in Mayo, ever since called Croagh-patrick. In East Meath he founded the abbey
of Domnach-Padraig (house of Patrick), and built a church in Dublin on the spot where St. Patrick’s
Cathedral now stands. In an island of Lough Derg, in Donegal, there is St. Patrick’s Purgatory; in Leinster,
St. Patrick’s Wood; at Cashel, St. Patrick’s Rock. There are scores of St. Patrick’s Wells from which he
drank; and he died at Saul, March 17th, 493. (Book of Days.)

St. Patrick’s real name was Succat, changed first into Cothraige, then to Magonus, and afterwards (on
 his ordination) to Patricius. (See Dr. Todd, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. vi.) Leap Year. Every year divisible by four. Such years occur every fourth year. In ordinary years the day of the month
which falls on Monday this year, will fall on Tuesday next year, and Wednesday the year after; but the fourth
year will leap over Thursday to Friday. This is because a day is added to February, which, of course, affects
every subsequent day of the year. (See BISSEXTILE.)
The ladies propose, and, if not accepted, claim a silk gown. St. Patrick, having “driven the frogs out of the
bogs,” was walking along the shores of Lough Neagh, when he was accosted by St. Bridget in tears, and was
told that a mutiny had broken out in the nunnery over which she presided, the ladies claiming the right of
  “popping the question.” St. Patrick said he would concede them the right every seventh year, when St.
 Bridget threw her arms round his neck, and exclaimed, “Arrah, Pathrick, jewel, I daurn’t go back to the girls
 wid such a proposal. Make it one year in four.” St. Patrick replied, “Bridget, acushla, squeeze me that way
agin, an’ I’ll give ye leap-year, the longest of the lot.” St. Bridget, upon this, popped the question to St.
 Patrick himself, who of course, could not marry; so he patched up the difficulty as best he could with a kiss
 and a silk gown.
                            The story told above is of no historic value, for an Act of the Scottish Parliament, passed in the year
                        1228, has been unearthed which runs thus:—

                           “Ordonit that during ye reign of her maist blessed maiestie, Margaret, ilka maiden ladee of baith high and
                           lowe estait, shall hae libertie to speak ye man she likes. Gif he refuses to tak hir to bee his wyf, he shale
                           be mulct in the sum of ane hundridty pundes, or less, as his estait may bee, except and alwais gif he can
                           make it appeare that he is betrothit to anither woman, then he schal be free.”

                           N.B. The year 1228 was, of course, a leap-year.

Seven Champions of Christendom

                        is by Richard Johnson, who lived in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I...
(6) St. Patrick of Ireland was immured in a cell where he scratched his grave with his own nails.

Werwolf (French, loup-garou).
...St. Patrick, we are told, converted Vereticus, King of Wales, into a wolf.

-E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898

....A canon attributed
                        to St. Patrick enumerates among the blessings that attend the reign of a just king “fine weather, calm seas,
                        crops abundant, and trees laden with fruit.” On the other hand, dearth, dryness of cows, blight of fruit, and
                        scarcity of corn were regarded as infallible proofs that the reigning king was bad....Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941).  The Golden Bough.  1922. VI.  Magicians as Kings

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Patrick was a Gentleman

click for midi sound

Patrick was a gentleman
Came from decent people,
He built a church in Dublin town
And on it put a steeple.
His father was a Gallagher,
His mother was a Grady,
His aunt was an O’Shaughnessy,
His uncle was a Brady.
The Wicklow hills are very high
And so is the hill of Howth, sir,
But there’s a hill much higher still,
Much higher than them both, sir.
On the top of this high hill
St Patrick preached his sermon
Which drove the fogs into the bogs
And banished all the vermin.
There’s not a mile of Eireann’s Isle
Where dirty vermin musters
But there he put his dear fore-foot
And murdered them in clusters.
The frogs went hop and the toads went pop,
Slapdash into the water,
And the snakes committed suicide
To save themselves from slaughter,
Nine hundred thousand reptiles blue
He charmed with sweet discourses
And dined on the m in Killaloe
On soups and second courses,
Where blind worms crawling in the grass
Disgusted all the nation,
Right down to Hell with a holy spell
He changed their situation.
No wonder that them Irish lads
Should be so gay and risky
Sure St. Pat he taught them that
As well as making whiskey.
No wonder that the saint himself
Should understand distilling
For his mother kept a shebeen shop
In the town of ?Enniskillen.
Was I but so fortunate
As to be back in Munster,
I’d be bound that from that ground
I never more would once stir.
There St. Patrick planted turf,
Cabbages and parties,
Pigs galore, mo gra, mo stor,
Alter boys and ladies
.-Christy Moore(from old broadside ballads)

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Patrick's Arrival

You’ve heard of St. Denis of France,
He never had much for to brag on.
You’ve heard of St. George and his lance,
Who killed old heathenish dragon.
The Saints of the Welshmen and Scot
Are a couple of pitiful pipers,
And might just as well go to pot
When compared to the patron of vipers:
St. Patrick of Ireland, my dear
He sailed to the Emerald Isle
On a lump of paving stone mounted.
He beat the steamboat by a mile
Which mighty good sailing was counted.
Says he, The salt water, I think,
Has made me unmerciful thirsty,
So bring be a flagon to drink
To wash down the mulligrups, burst ye,
Of drink that is fit for a saint.

He preached then with wonderful force,
The ignorant natives a-teaching.
With wine washed down each discourse
For says he, I detest your dry preaching.”
The people in wonderment struck
At a pastor so pious and civil,
Exclaimed, “We’re for you, my oul buck,
And we’ll heave our blind Gods to the devil
Who dwells in hot water below.”

This finished, our worshipful man
Went to visit an elegant fellow
Whose practice each cool afternoon
Was to get most delightfully mellow.
That day with a barrel of beer
He was drinking away with abandon
Says Patrick its grand to be here.
I drank nothing to speak of since landing,
So give me a pull from your pot.

He lifted the pewter in sport,
Believe me, I tell you its no tale.
A gallon he drank from the quart
And left it back full on the table.
“A miracle!” everyone cried
And all tooka pull on the Stingo.
They were mighty good hands at that trade
And they drank till they fell yet, by Jingo,
The pot it still frothed o’er the brim.

Next day, said the host, its a fast
And I’ve nothing to eat but cold mutton.”
On Fridays who’d make such repast
Except an unmerciful glutton
Said Pat, Stop that nonsense, I beg.
What you tell me is nothin but gammon.
When the host brought down the lamb’s leg,
Pat ordered it turned into salmon,
And the leg most politely complied.

Youve heard I suppose long ago
How the snakes in a manner most antic,
He marched to the county Mayo
And ordered them all into the Atlantic.
Hence never use water to drink-
The people of Ireland determine
With mighty good reason, I think,
For Patrick has filled it with vermin
And snakes and other such things.

He was as fine a man
As youd meet from Fairhead to Kilcrumper.
Though under the sod he is laid
Let’s all drink his health in a bumper,
I wish he was here that my glass
He might by art magic replenish,
But since he is not why, alas,
My old song must come to a finish
Because all the drink it is gone!
-Christy Moore,Traditional

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Song to St. Patrick
(tune:Derry Air)

On this bright day
We praise you, good St. Patrick
A man of God
Our patron for so long
You brought the faith
That has so well sustained us
That in the face of hardship
Has ever kept us strong

And in your hand,
You hl=old the blessed Shamrock:
Three leaves to teach
The triune Mystery
Down through the years
Your lesson still inspires us:
By your teaching and example
We have been set free.

Perhaps now more than ever
We ask your help
Beloved bishop still
Your constant faith
And trust in God ne’er wavering
Burn bright as Easter fire
On Tara’s distant hill
We prayed for peace
Throughout your land of Erin
We asked your help
That ancient wounds be healed
And now we see
A new day’s dawn is brightening
Though peace you helped to gain
God’s mercy is revealed!

Stand with us now,
Oh blessed friend and pastor
As we begin
To build our land anew
And those who add
Their prayers and good intentions
Throughout the world-
We pray you bless them too
For everywhere
We fight the pagan forces
The very same
You helped us once subdue
Be with us now, our intercessor always
And to the teachings of our faith
We will stay true!-
Bill Black

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 (words: Sister Agnes, tune: ancient Irish melody)

 Hail, glorious St. Patrick, dear saint of our isle,
 On us thy poor children bestow a sweet smile;
 And now thou art high in the mansions above,
 On Erin's green valleys look down in thy love.

 (optional repeat)
 On Erin's green valleys, on Erin's green valleys,
 On Erin's green valleys look down in thy love.

 Hail, glorious St. Patrick, thy words were once strong
 Against Satan's wiles and a heretic throng;
 Not less is thy might where in Heaven thou art;
 Oh, come to our aid, in our battle take part!

 In a war against sin, in the fight for the faith,
 Dear Saint, may thy children resist to the death;
 May their strength be in meekness, in penance, and prayer,
 Their banner the Cross, which they glory to bear.

 Thy people, now exiles on many a shore,
 Shall love and revere thee till time be no more;
 And the fire thou hast kindled shall ever burn bright,
 Its warmth undiminished, undying its light.

 Ever bless and defend the sweet land of our birth,
 Where the shamrock still blooms as when thou wert on earth,
 And our hearts shall yet burn, wherever we roam,
 For God and St. Patrick, and our native home.

 source: St. Gregory Hymnal and Catholic Choir Book, 1920

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You sons of great Saint Patrick that now reside in New York town,
I pray you pay attention to my patriotic theme;
Assist my feeble efforts which I endeavor to relate,
In hopes to put in order, to illustrate
The name--to hail the sacred festival of our renowned and pious Saint.

The Irishmen of New York to the club-rooms do repair,
Where high and low are free to go, no one astray but does approve,
And yet they have permission from the Right Honorable the Mayor.
The standard of the Emerald Isle makes each Hibernian's heart to smile,

The Yankees to the door run wild, their beauties to survey--
To view the flag so much esteemed,
Composed of white and lovely green, the mark of friendship without speen,
On Patrick's holy day.

The first represents the paintings exhibited on one side
Of the temperance royal colors, the ornament of praise,
And the other demonstrates our Saviour dear, who for us died,
Presenting Simon Peter with the great immortal keys.

Installing at the same time with power to loose, likewise to bind;
Peruse in John and you shall find
My words are not astray;
The 20th chapter plainly shows,
He that will a temperance cause oppose,
He wont be ranked at all with those
On Patrick's holy day.

The cross and shamrock you may behold,
Whose fame it sounds from pole to pole,
The stripes and stars o'erlayed in gold,
To show they now obey--
And to the States be loyal and true,
As they had been at Waterloo,
In hopes they will crush the hellish crew,
That hates Patrick's holy day.

Saint Patrick, the Apostle, and patron of Old Erin's shore,
Driving alll reptiles from the saintly Irish land.
Then worn to a good old age,
He left this frail immortal stage,
The month of March, I will engage,
Observe what I do say,
On the 17th his soul went straight,
And entered the celestial gate,
For which his sons commemorate
Saint Patrick's holy day.

Being assembled in due order Saint Patrick's picture leads the van,
Supported by two young men dressed in magnificent style
To the stately chapel of St. John,
Where they all do march along,
To pay their great homage to the awful sacrifice;
And when they come unto the gate,
The flags composed an arch complete,
The Knights march through in pomp and state,
Just as they pass through and entering in the organs chimed,
To praise Hibernia's lovely line,
While on their knees in prayers they join,
On Patrick's holy day.

To preach the annual sermon, a very reverend mild divine,
Ascends unto the pulpit in order to relate,
To preach the life of blessed St. Patrick, which sends forth in words sublime'
In pressing each Hibernian to try to imitate--
Then the sermon it being closed,
The brave Hibernians all arose,
Without more delay,
With their good clergy at their head,
There is nothing on this earth to dread,
All selfish fears and feuds are fled,
On Patrick's holy day.

The Temperance bands melodious sounds to cheer them on their way--
Back to the club rooms they incline,
Where friendly they sit down to dine,
And all the temperance pledge do sign,
On Patrick's holy day.


Entered according to Act of Congress in the Clerk's office, in the District Court of theSouthern District of New York, in the year 1861, by PATRICK MORAN, Brooklyn.

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It's some years ago, I very well know,
Since I first saw day-light with my two blessed eyes;
I was born, so they say, when my Dad was away,
On St. Patrick's day, in the morning.
How they nursed me with joy, said: what a fine boy!
Put a stick in my fist, by the way of a toy:
Faith! there's no mistake, they admired my make,
And said some day I'd give the girls a warming.

Chorus: For, Paddy is the boy that's fond of a glass
Paddy is the boy that's fond of a lass!
Dear Old Dublin is the place for me.
And Donnybrook is the place to go for a spree!

At a wake or a fair, poor Paddy is there;
He will fight foe or friend, if they do him offend;
Let the piper strike up.. he will rise from his cup:
With a smile on his face adorning,
With his little Colleen, he'll dance on the green;
Sure, an Irishman, there, in his glory was seen:
Play a reel or a jig, he don't care a fig:
But he'll dance till day-light, in the morning.


Now, boys, do you mind: you never will find
Such a dear little place as the Emerald Isle;
Long, long may it stand, and good luck to the land
That dear Old St. Patrick was born in!..
May the girls, young and old, may the boys, brave and bold,
Unite, heart and hand, to protect the dear Isle!
And, morn, noon and night, may joy and delight
Shine on them, like a fine Summer's morning!


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Air.--"Vilikens and his Dinah."

Pat fell sick on a time, and he sent for the Priest,
That, dying he might have his blessing, at least,
And to come with all speed, did humbly implore him,
To fit him out right, for the journey before him.

Chorus,--sing tu ral, li tu ral, li tu ral li day

The good Father the summons did quickly obey,
And found Paddy, alas! in a terrible way;
Fix'd and wild were his looks, and his nose cold and blue,
And his countenance wore a cold churchyard-like hue.

The good Father bid Pat to confess all his crimes,
To think of his sins, and forsake them betimes;
Or his fate else would be like other vile souls,
To be flayed and be salted, then roasted on coals!

"Oh, think, my dear Pat, on that beautiful place,
Where you'll visit St. Patrick, and see his sweet face;
Tis a country, my jewel so charming and swate,
Where you'll never want praties nor brogues to your fate.

'Well well thin," says Pat, with inquisitive face,
"That country must, sure be a beautiful place,
St. Patrick, no doubt, will give us good cheer,
But d'ye think has he got any ould whiskey there?"

The good Father with wonder amaze and surprise,
Clasp'd his hands, and next turned up the whites of his eyes,
"Oh, vile sinner," cayshe," can you hope to be forgiven
If you think there is carousing and drinking in Heaven

"Well, well, thin," says Pat, "though I cannot help thinking,
If in Heaven they can do without eating or drinking,
(Though I don't mean to say what you tell is a Fable.)
'Twould be dacent you know to see a drop on the table."

Andrews, Printer, 35 Chatham St. N.Y.

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James Hughes on St. Patrick Lore

"I oftin heard other stories too. It's claimed thet whin St. Patrick wuz buildin' his first church there usta ba a bull ta tear down his wirk ivery naight. But St. Patrick couldn't ketch him.
So one naight he set up watchin' fir him with a Bishop's staff an' whin the bull come he give him sech a whack thet he knocked him fieve males (miles). An thier, fieve males from the
place where St. Patrick knocked him, ya kin still see the miarks a the bull's knees where he fell on a rock. I seen 'em once maself whin I wuz thier.

"An did ya iver know why roosters niver crow in three townlands in County Down in Ireland? Thet's an antristin' (interesting) tale. It sames thet St. Patrick usta go from {Begin
deleted text} towland {End deleted text} {Begin inserted text} {Begin handwritten} townland {End handwritten} {End inserted text} (village of from twenty to thirty farm homes) ta
townland, sorta laike a pilgrim. Whin he found some one ta welcome him at naights he'd spind (spend) the naight thier. But he alwiays got up an' wint awiay at the first crow a the cock.
Thet wuz usually aroun' twelve a' clock.

"Well, one naight he couldn't find no place ta spind the naight. He went to two diffrunt townlands an' no one asked him ta staiy the naight. Whin he come ta the thrid townland, some
one there asked him, but they didn't raely want him, fir thiey sint thier {Begin deleted text} cioy {End deleted text} {Begin inserted text} {Begin handwritten} bioy {End handwritten}
{End inserted text} ta roost with the cocks an' told his ta crow bafore twelve a'clock sa as St. Patrick 'ould lave (leave) early.

"Well, St. Patrick, whin he heard thet crow sa early, prayed thet the {Begin deleted text} cok {End deleted text} {Begin inserted text} {Begin handwritten} cock {End handwritten}
{End inserted text} thet crowed before twelve a'clock 'ould fall an' break his neck, an' he priayed too thet their niver 'would another cock crow in thim three townlands.

"Well, the bioy fell an' broke his neck, jest accordin' ta St. Patrick's priayer, an' ta this diay thier never has bin a cock crowed in thim three townlands. If ya go their aven taday,
enybody'll tell ya about thet.

-. Living Lore in New England , Shoe laster of Lynn - #2 Jane K. Leary , Interview with: James Hughes

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Snakes and Shamrocks
In 1831, to test the story of St. Patrick and the serpents, Mr. James Cleland, an Irishman, brought from England six snakes. He turned them out in his garden at Rath-Gael. A few days later a yokel, thinking it was an eel that he had found, took one of the snakes to Dr. J.L. Drummond, a celebrated Irish naturalist, who said it was an eel. The idea of a “rale living sarpint” being found so close to the grave of St. Patrick caused a sensation among the country people. One clergyman preached a sermon that this was the sign of the approaching millennium. Another saw it as a harbinger of plague. A reward was offered, and some of the snakes were killed some miles from Mr. Cleland’s garden. It is not known what happened to the others....

When he was dying he bade his lamenting followers not to grieve but to rejoice ht his easy exit, and asked them each to have a “drop to drink” which is why Irishmen have a “crathur” on March 17. After the meal the people would sit for the remainder of the evening over a “Patrick’s pot”. The shamrock is “drowned” in the last drink of the night. The next day is Sheelah’s Day. (Hone 1878 II,192)

The Shamrock: The trefoil is called in Arabic the shamrakh. Pliny said that the serpent is never found on the trefoil, and said the plant was effective against the stings of snakes and scorpions-(Chambers, 1881)

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St. Sechnall On St. Patrick

     "Hear, all you who love God, the holy merits of Patrick the bishop, a man blessed in Christ; how, for his good deeds, he is likened unto the angels and, for his perfect life, he is comparable to the apostles" (Hymn in Praise of St.
     Patrick 1 [A.D. 444]).
     "Steadfast in the fear of God, and in faith immovable, upon [St. Patrick] as upon Peter the [Irish] church is built; and he has been allotted his apostleship by God; against him the gates of hell prevail not" (ibid., 3 [A.D. 444]).
     "[St. Patrick] boldly proclaims to the [Irish] tribes the Name of the Lord, to whom he gives the eternal grace of the laver of salvation; for their offenses he prays daily unto God; for them also he offers up to God worthy sacrifices"
     (ibid., 13 [A.D. 444]).

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All Praise to Saint Patrick
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All praise to Saint Patrick, who brought to our mountains
The gift of God's faith, the sweet light of His love.
All praise to the Shepherd who showed us the fountains
That rise in the Heart of the Saviour above.
For hundreds of years,
In smiles and in tears,
Our Saint hath been with us, our shield and our stay;
All else may have gone,
Saint Patrick alone.
He hath been to us light, when earth's lights were all set,
For the glories of faith they can never decay,
And the best of our glories is bright with us yet,
in the faith and the feast of Saint Patrick's day.

There is not a Saint in the bright courts of heaven,
More faithful than he to the land of his choice;
Oh well may the nation to whom he was given,
In the feast of their Sire and apostle rejoice.
In Glory above
True to his love,
He keeps the false faith from his children away.
The dark false faith
Far worse than death.
Oh he drives it far off from the green sunny shore,
Like the reptiles that fled from his curse in dismay,
And Erin when error's proud triumph is o'er,
Will still be found keeping Saint Patrick's day.

Then what shall we do for the heaven sent father?
What shall the proof of our loyalty be?
By all that is dear to our hearts we would rather
Be martyred sweet Saint, than bring shame upon thee.
But oh, he will take
The promise we make,
So to live that our lives by God's help, may display
The light that he bore
To Erin's shore.
Oh Yes Father of Ireland! no child wilt thou own
Whose life is not lighted by grace on its way;
For they are true Irish, ah yes, they alone,
Whose hearts are all true on Saint Patrick's day.-Traditional

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St. Patrick's Breastplate
-Said to be written by the saint

                   I bind unto myself today

                  The strong name of the Trinity,

                  By invocation of the same,

                  The Three in One and One in Three.

                  I bind this day to me for ever,

                  By power of faith, Christ's Incarnation;

                  His baptism in the Jordan River;

                  His death on cross for my salvation;

                  His bursting from the spicèd tomb;

                  His riding up the heavenly way;

                  His coming at the day of doom;

                  I bind unto myself today.

                  I bind unto myself the power

                  Of the great love of the Cherubim;

                  The sweet 'Well done' in judgment hour;

                  The service of the Seraphim,

                  Confessors' faith, Apostles' word,

                  The Patriarchs' prayers, the Prophets' scrolls,

                  All good deeds done unto the Lord,

                  And purity of virgin souls.

                  I bind unto myself today

                  The virtues of the starlit heaven,

                  The glorious sun's life-giving ray,

                  The whiteness of the moon at even,

                  The flashing of the lightning free,

                  The whirling wind's tempestuous shocks,

                  The stable earth, the deep salt sea,

                  Around the old eternal rocks.

                  I bind unto myself today

                  The power of God to hold and lead,

                  His eye to watch, His might to stay,

                  His ear to hearken to my need.

                  The wisdom of my God to teach,

                  His hand to guide, his shield to ward,

                  The word of God to give me speech,

                  His heavenly host to be my guard.

                  Against the demon snares of sin,

                  The vice that gives temptation force,

                  The natural lusts that war within,

                  The hostile men that mar my course;

                  Or few or many, far or nigh,

                  In every place and in all hours

                  Against their fierce hostility,

                  I bind to me these holy powers.

                  Against all Satan's spells and wiles,

                  Against false words of heresy,

                  Against the knowledge that defiles,

                  Against the heart's idolatry,

                  Against the wizard's evil craft,

                  Against the death-wound and the burning

                  The choking wave and the poisoned shaft,

                  Protect me, Christ, till thy returning.

                  Christ be with me, Christ within me,

                  Christ behind me, Christ before me,

                  Christ beside me, Christ to win me,

                  Christ to comfort and restore me,

                  Christ beneath me, Christ above me,

                  Christ in quiet, Christ in danger,

                  Christ in hearts of all that love me,

                  Christ in mouth of friend and stranger.

                  I bind unto myself the name,

                  The strong name of the Trinity;

                  By invocation of the same.

                  The Three in One, and One in Three,

                  Of whom all nature hath creation,

                  Eternal Father, Spirit, Word:

                  Praise to the Lord of my salvation,

                  salvation is of Christ the Lord.

More direct Version Translated by Kuno Meyer:

                                       I arise today
                                       Through a mighty strength, the invocation of the Trinity,
                                       Through belief in the threeness,
                                       Through confession of the oneness
                                       Of the Creator of Creation.

                                       I arise today
                                       Through the strength of Christ's birth with His baptism,
                                       Through the strength of His crucifixion with His burial,
                                       Through the strength of His resurrection with His ascension,
                                       Through the strength of His descent for the judgement of Doom.

                                       I arise today
                                       Through the strength of the love of the Cherubim,
                                       In the obedience of angels,
                                       In the service of archangels,
                                       In the hope of the resurrection to meet with reward,
                                       In the prayers of patriarchs,
                                       In prediction of prophets,
                                       In preaching of apostles,
                                       In faith of confessors,
                                       In innocence of holy virgins,
                                       In deeds of righteous men.

                                       I arise today
                                       Through the strength of heaven;
                                       Light of sun,
                                       Radiance of moon,
                                       Splendour of fire,
                                       Speed of lightning,
                                       Swiftness of wind,
                                       Depth of sea,
                                       Stability of earth,
                                       Firmness of rock.

                                       I arise today
                                       Through God's strength to pilot me:
                                       God's might to uphold me,
                                       God's wisdom to guide me,
                                       God's eye to look before me,
                                       God's ear to hear me,
                                       God's word to speak to me,
                                       God's hand to guard me,
                                       God's way to lie before me,
                                       God's shield to protect me,
                                       God's host to save me,

                                       From snares of devils,
                                       From temptation of vices,
                                       From every one who shall wish me ill,
                                       Afar and anear,
                                       Alone and in a multitude.
                                       I summon today all these powers between me and those evils,

                                       Against every cruel merciless power that may oppose my body
                                            and soul,
                                       Against incantations of false prophets,
                                       Against black laws of pagandom,
                                       Against false laws of heretics,
                                       Against craft of idolatry,
                                       Against spells of women and smiths and wizards,
                                       Against every knowledge that corrupts man's body and soul.

                                       Christ to shield me today
                                       Against poising, against burning,
                                       Against drowning, against wounding,
                                       So there come to me abundance of reward.

                                       Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me,
                                       Christ in me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me,
                                       Christ on my right, Christ on my left,
                                       Christ when I lie down,
                                       Christ when I sit down,
                                       Christ when I arise,
                                       Christ in the heart of every man who

                                        thinks of me,
                                       Christ in the mouth of every one who

                                        speaks of me,
                                       Christ in the eye of every one who sees

                                       Christ in every ear that hears me.

                                       I arise today
                                       Through a mighty strength, the   

                                        invocation of the Trinity,
                                       Through belief in the threeness,
                                       Through confession of the oneness
                                       Of the Creator of Creation.

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  Liturgical Stichera  from the Vespers of St. Patrick


                  "Rejoice, ye hills and groves of the Irish land!

                  Leap up, ye lakes and rivers.

                  For lo, through the grace of God blessing and strengthening have come upon you from on high,

                  for your enlightener and spiritual father comes unto you:

                  Patrick, glorious among hierarchs, zealot of the Orthodox Faith, chosen by God for the apostolate.

                  Using the nature of your own island,

                  he teaches you the mystery of the Trinity by means of the simplest Shamrock."

                  "To the newly-enlightened Christians, the holy Patrick, Equal-to-the Apostles, cries out:

                  Attend, my spiritual children:

                  I have begotten you, as says the Gospel!

                  I have betrothed you as a bride to Christ God.

                  Stand fast, therefore, in the Faith, and confess it fearlessly,

                  binding the Faith of the Holy Trinity upon yourselves as a Breastplate.

                  Be not afraid of the opposition of oppressors,

                  that God may manifest Himself unto you as a great Helper and Protector!"

                  "Great is your faith, O holy hierarch Patrick:

                  for lo! Having left your homeland and lands enlightened by Christ,

                  you journeyed to a land thirsty for the message of the Spirit.

                  Bearing the Gospel of Christ unto the people,

                  you lit the holy fire of Pascha upon the mount of Slane,

                  and taught by it those who worshiped the fire to adore the True Light.

                  You did not depart therefrom until you had converted the whole land to the

                  Orthodox Faith.

                  Wherefore, we praise you O Father of the Irish Church."

                  "Loving the heavenly homeland and desiring to attain thereunto, O father


                  you forsook your native land on earth;

                  and in a foreign land you did beget a new people in the Spirit,

                  showing yourself to be a true father to them,

                  and crying aloud unto the Lord: 'Here am I, and the children whom Thou hast given me,'

                  as you gaze upon the Divine Truth which will never depart from the land you

                  ransomed from Death."

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The Apolytikion and the Kontakion for St. Patrick

                  While thou didst live on earth, O blessed father Pádraig,

                  thou didst bind to thyself the strong

                  name of the Holy Trinity,

                  and faith in the undivided Trinity Who

                  created the universe.

                  Now that thou standest before the throne

                  of the Holy Trinity,

                  entreat Christ our God to save

                  our souls!

                  (Apolytikion, Second Tone)

                  May Christ be in the heart of everyone

                  who thinks of thee,

                  Christ in the mouth of those who

                  speak to thee,

                  Christ in every eye that sees


                  Christ in every ear that hears

                  thy words,

                  O blessed Pádraig, our


                  (Kontakion, Grave Tone)

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"Hymn on St. Patrick, Teacher of the Irish"
                                            - by St. Secundinus -

                  Hear ye all, lovers of God, the | holy merits

                  Of the man blessed in Christ, Pa - | trick the bishop,

                  How for his good ways he is likened to the an - | gels,

                  And because of his perfect life is deemed equal to | the Apostles.

                  Christ's holy precepts he keeps | in all things,

                  His works shine | bright among men,

                  And they follow his holy and wondrous exam - | ple,

                  And thus magnify God the Father | in the heavens.

                  Constant in the fear of God and steadfast | in his faith,

                  Upon whom the Church is built | as on Peter;

                  And his Apostleship has he received from | God --

                  The gates of Hell will not pre - | vail against him.

                  The Lord has chosen him to teach the barbar - | ian tribes,

                  To fish with the nets | of his teaching,

                  And to draw from the world unto grace the believ - | ers,

                  Men who would follow the Lord to His | heavenly seat.

                  He sells the choice talents of | Christ's Gospel

                  And collects them among the Irish hea - | thens with usury;

                  As a reward for the great labor of his voy - | age,

                  He will come into possession of joy with Christ in the

                  hea - | venly kingdom.

                  God's faithful minister and His distinguished am - | bassador,

                  He gives the good an Apostolic ex - | ample and model,

                  Preaching as he does to God's people in words as well as in |


                  So that him whom he converts not with words he inspires |

                  with good conduct.

                  Glory has he with Christ, honor | in the world,

                  He who is venerated by all as an | angel of God.

                  God has sent him, as He sent Paul, an Apostle to the gen - | tiles,

                  To offer men guidance to the | kingdom of God.

                  Humble is he of mind and body because of his | fear of God;

                  The Lord abides upon him because | of his good deeds;

                  In his righteous flesh he bears the stigmata of | Christ;

                  In His Cross alone, his sole comfort, | he glor - ies.

                  Untiringly he feeds the faithful from the heaven - | ly banquet,

                  Lest those who are with Christ | faint on the way;

                  Like bread he gives to them the words of the Gos - | pel,

                  Which are multiplied like manna | in his hands.

                  He preserves his body chaste for love | of the Lord;

                  This body he has prepared as a temple for the | Holy Spirit,

                  And he keeps it such by purity in all his act - | ions;

                  He offers it as a living sacrifice, acceptable | to the Lord.

                  Enflaming light of the world, great one | of the Gospel,

                  Lifted up on a candlestick, shining un - | to all the age -

                  The fortified city of the King, founded upon a moun - | tain,

                  Wherein there is great abundance | of the Lord.

                  Greatest indeed will be called in the kingdom | of heaven

                  The man who fulfills with good deeds the holy | words he teaches,

                  Who by his good example is a leader and model to the faith -| ful,

                  Who in purity of heart has con - | fidence in God.

                  Boldly he proclaims the Name of the Lord to | the heathens,

                  And gives them eternal grace in the bath | of salvation.

                  He prays to God daily for their | sins,

                  For them he offers sacrifices, worthy in | the eyes of God.

                  For the sake of God's law he despises all | worldly glory;

                  Compared to His table he considers all | else as trifling;

                  He is not moved by the violence of this | world,

                  But, suffering for Christ, he rejoices in | adversity.

                  A good and faithful shepherd of the flock won for | the Gospel,

                  God has chosen him to watch o - | ver God's people

                  And to feed with divine teaching His | folk,

                  For whom, following Christ's example, he | gives forth his soul.

                  Who for his merits the Savior has raised him to the dignity of a |


                  In heavenly things he instructs the army | of the clergy,

                  Providing them with heavenly rations, besides vest - | ments -

                  The rations of divine | and sacred texts.

                  He is the King's herald, inviting the faithful | to the wedding.

                  He is richly clad in a | wedding garment,

                  He drinks heavenly wine from heavenly | cups

                  And gives God's people the spiritual | cup to drink.

                  He finds a holy treasure in the Sa - | cred Volume

                  And perceives the Savior's divinity | in His flesh.

                  It is a treasure he purchases with holy and perfect | works.

                  ISRAEL his soul is called -- | "see - ing God."

                  A faithful witness of the Lord in the Ca - | tholic Law,

                  His speech is spiced with divine | revelations,

                  That human flesh may not decay, eaten by | worms,

                  But be salted with heavenly savor | for sacrifice.

                  A true and renowned tiller of the | Gospel field,

                  His seeds | are Christ's Gospels.

                  These he sows from his God-inspired mouth into the ears of the |


                  And cultivates their hearts and minds with the | Holy Spirit.

                  Christ chose him to be His vi - | car on earth.

                  He frees captives from a two-fold | ser - vitude:

                  The great numbers whom he liberates from bondage to | men,

                  These countless ones he frees from the yoke | of the devil.

                  Hymns, and the Apocalypse, and the Psalms of | God he sings,

                  And explains them for the edification | of God's people.

                  He believes the law in the Trinity of the holy | Name,

                  And he teaches one Substance | in Three Persons.

                  Girt with the Lord's girdle | day and night,

                  He prays unceasingly | to God the Lord.

                  He will receive the reward for his immense la - | bor -

                  With the Apostles will he reign, holy, over | Is - rael.

                  May Bishop Patrick pray for | all of us,

                  That the sins which we have committed be blotted out | immediately,

                  May we ever sing Patrick's prais - | es,

                  That we may ever | live with him.


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Letter To Coroticus

                                        I, Patrick, a sinner, unlearned, resident in Ireland, declare myself
                                        to be a bishop. Most assuredly I believe that what I am I have
                                        received from God. And so I live among barbarians, a stranger
                                        and exile for the love of God. He is witness that this is so. Not that I
                                        wished my mouth to utter anything so hard and harsh; but I am
                                        forced by the zeal for God; and the truth of Christ has wrung it from
                                        me, out of love for my neighbors and sons for whom I gave up my
                                        country and parents and my life to the point of death. If I be worthy,
                                        I live for my God to teach the heathen, even though some may
                                        despise me.

                                        With my own hand I have written and composed these words, to
                                        be given, delivered, and sent to the soldiers of Coroticus; I do not
                                        say, to my fellow citizens, or to fellow citizens of the holy
                                        Romans, but to fellow citizens of the demons, because of their evil
                                        works. Like our enemies, they live in death, allies of the Scots and
                                        the apostate Picts. Dripping with blood, they welter in the blood of
                                        innocent Christians, whom I have begotten into the number for
                                        God and confirmed in Christ!

                                        The day after the newly baptized, anointed with chrism, in white
                                        garments (had been slain) - the fragrance was still on their
                                        foreheads when they were butchered and slaughtered with the
                                        sword by the above-mentioned people - I sent a letter with a holy
                                        presbyter whom I had taught from his childhood, clerics
                                        accompanying him, asking them to let us have some of the booty,
                                        and of the baptized they had made captives. They only jeered at

                                        Hence I do not know what to lament more: those who have been
                                        slain, or those whom they have taken captive, or those whom the
                                        devil has mightily ensnared. Together with him they will be slaves
                                        in Hell in an eternal punishment; for who commits sin is a slave
                                        and will be called a son of the devil.

                                        Wherefore let every God-fearing man know that they are enemies
                                        of me and of Christ my God, for whom I am an ambassador.
                                        Parricide! fratricide! ravening wolves that "eat the people of the
                                        Lord as they eat bread!" As is said, "the wicked, O Lord, have
                                        destroyed Thy law," which but recently He had excellently and
                                        kindly planted in Ireland, and which had established itself by the
                                        grace of God.

                                        I make no false claim. I share in the work of those whom He called
                                        and predestinated to preach the Gospel amidst grave
                                        persecutions unto the end of the earth, even if the enemy shows
                                        his jealousy through the tyranny of Coroticus, a man who has no
                                        respect for God nor for His priests whom He chose, giving them
                                        the highest, divine, and sublime power, that whom "they should
                                        bind upon earth should be bound also in Heaven."

                                        Wherefore, then, I plead with you earnestly, ye holy and humble of
                                        heart, it is not permissible to court the favor of such people, nor to
                                        take food or drink with them, nor even to accept their alms, until
                                        they make reparation to God in hard-ships, through penance, with
                                        shedding of tears, and set free the baptized servants of God and
                                        handmaids of Christ, for whom He died and was crucified.

                                        "The Most High disapproves the gifts of the wicked ... He that
                                        offers sacrifice of the goods of the poor, is as one that sacrifices
                                        the son in the presence of his lather. The riches, it is written, which
                                        he has gathered unjustly, shall be vomited up from his belly; the
                                        angel of death drags him away, by the fury of dragons he shall be
                                        tormented, the viper’s tongue shall kill him, unquenchable fire
                                        devours him." And so - "woe to those who fill themselves with what
                                        is not their own;" or, "What does it profit a man that he gains the
                                        whole world, and suffers the loss of his own soul?

                                        It would be too tedious to discuss and set forth everything in detail,
                                        to gather from the whole Law testimonies against such greed.
                                        Avarice is a deadly sin. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’ s
                                        goods." "Thou shalt not kill." A murderer cannot be with Christ.
                                        "Whosoever hates his brother is accounted a murderer." Or, "he
                                        that loves not his brother abides in death." How much more guilty
                                        is he that has stained his hands with blood of the sons of God
                                        whom He has of late purchased in the utmost part of the earth
                                        through the call of our littleness!

                                        Did I come to Ireland without God, or according to the flesh? Who
                                        compelled me? I am bound by the Spirit not to see any of my
                                        kinsfolk. Is it of my own doing that I have holy mercy on the people
                                        who once took me captive and made away with the servants and
                                        maids of my father’s house? I was freeborn according to the flesh.
                                        I am the son of a decurion. But I sold my noble rank I am neither
                                        ashamed nor sorry for the good of others. Thus I am a servant in
                                        Christ to a foreign nation for the unspeakable glory of life
                                        everlasting which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

                                        And if my own people do not know me, a prophet has no honor in
                                        his own country. Perhaps we are not of the same fold and have not
                                        one and the same God as father, as is written: "He that is not with
                                        me, is against me, and he that gathers not with me, scatters." It is
                                        not right that one destroys, another builds up. I seek not the things
                                        that are mine.

                                        It is not my grace, but God who has given this solicitude into my
                                        heart, to be one of His hunters or fishers whom God once foretold
                                        would come in the last days.
                                        I am hated. What shall I do, Lord? I am most despised.
                                        Look, Thy sheep around me are tom to pieces and driven away,
                                        and that by those robbers, by the orders of the hostile-minded
                                        Coroticus. Far from the love of God is a man who hands over
                                        Christians to the Picts and Scots. Ravening wolves have devoured
                                        the flock of the Lord, which in Ireland was indeed growing
                                        splendidly with the greatest care; and the sons and daughters of
                                        kings were monks and virgins of Christ - I cannot count their
                                        number. Wherefore, be not pleased with the wrong done to the
                                        just; even to hell it shall not please.

                                        Who of the saints would not shudder to be merry with such
                                        persons or to enjoy a meal with them? They have filled their
                                        houses with the spoils of dead Christians, they live on plunder.
                                        They do not know, the wretches, that what they offer their friends
                                        and sons as food is deadly poison, just as Eve did not understand
                                        that it was death she gave to her husband. So are all that do evil:
                                        they work death as their eternal punishment.

                                        This is the custom of the Roman Christians of Gaul: they send holy
                                        and able men to the Franks and other heathen with so many
                                        thousand solidi to ransom baptized captives. You prefer to kill and
                                        sell them to a foreign nation that has no knowledge of God. You
                                        betray the members of Christ as it were into a brothel. What hope
                                        have you in God, or anyone who thinks as you do, or converses
                                        with you in words of flattery? God will judge. For Scripture says:
                                        "Not only them that do evil are worthy to be condemned, but they
                                        also that consent to them."

                                        I do not know why I should say or speak further about the departed
                                        ones of the sons of God, whom the sword has touched all too
                                        harshly. For Scripture says: "Weep with them that weep;" and
                                        again: "If one member be grieved, let all members grieve with it."
                                        Hence the Church mourns and laments her sons and daughters
                                        whom the sword has not yet slain, but who were removed and
                                        carried off to faraway lands, where sin abounds openly, grossly,
                                        impudently. There people who were freeborn have, been sold,
                                        Christians made slaves, and that, too, in the service of the
                                        abominable, wicked, and apostate Picts!

                                        Therefore I shall raise my voice in sadness and grief- O you fair
                                        and beloved brethren and sons whom I have begotten in Christ,
                                        countless of number, what can I do you for? I am not worthy to
                                        come to the help of God or men. The wickedness of the wicked
                                        hath prevailed over us. We have been made, as it were, strangers.
                                        Perhaps they do not believe that we have received one and the
                                        same baptism, or have one and the same God as Father. For
                                        them it is a disgrace that we are Irish. Have ye not, as is written,
                                        one God? Have ye, every one of you, forsaken his neighbor?
                                        Therefore I grieve for you, I grieve, my dearly beloved.
                                        But again, I rejoice within myself. I have not labored for nothing,
                                        and my journeying abroad has not been in vain. And if this horrible,
                                        unspeakable crime did happen - thanks be to God, you have left
                                        the world and have gone to Paradise as baptized faithful. I see
                                        you: you have begun to journey where night shall be no more, nor
                                        mourning, nor death; but you shall leap like calves loosened from
                                        their bonds, and you shall tread down the wicked, and they shall
                                        be ashes under your feet.

                                        You then, will reign with the apostles, and prophets, and martyrs.
                                        You will take possession of an eternal kingdom, as He Himself
                                        testifies, saying: "They shall come from the east and from the
                                        west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in
                                        the kingdom of heaven." "Without are dogs, and sorcerers,... and
                                        murderers; and liars and perjurers have their portion in the pool of
                                        everlasting fire." Not without reason does the Apostle say: "Where
                                        the just man shall scarcely be saved, where shall the sinner and
                                        ungodly transgressor of the law find himself?"

                                        Where, then, will Coroticus with his criminals, rebels against
                                        Christ, where will they see themselves, they who distribute
                                        baptized women as prizes - for a miserable temporal kingdom,
                                        which will pass away in a moment? As a cloud or smoke that is
                                        dispersed by the wind, so shall the deceitful wicked perish at the
                                        presence of the Lord; but the just shall feast with great constancy
                                        with Christ, they shall judge nations, and rule over wicked kings for
                                        ever and ever. Amen.

                                        I testify before God and His angels that it will be so as He
                                        indicated to my ignorance. It is not my words that I have set forth in
                                        Latin, but those of God and the apostles and prophets, who have
                                        never lied. "He that believes shall be saved; but he that believes
                                        not shall be condemned," God hath spoken.

                                        I ask earnestly that whoever is a willing servant of God be a carrier
                                        of this letter, so that on no account it be suppressed or hidden by
                                        anyone, but rather be read before all the people, and in the
                                        presence of Coroticus himself. May God inspire them sometime
                                        to recover their senses for God, repenting, however late, their
                                        heinous deeds - murderers of the brethren of the Lord! - and to set
                                        free the baptized women whom they took captive, in order that
                                        they may deserve to live to God, and be made whole, here and in
                                        eternity! Be peace to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy
                                        Spirit. Amen.

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Hymn of  St. Patrick-Secundinus's
                                                    Teacher of the Irish


                               Hear all ye who love God, the holy merits
                               Of the Bishop Patrick, a man blessed in Christ;
                               How, on account of his good actions, he is likened unto the angels,
                               And for his perfect life, is counted equal to the Apostles.

                                                                                      2 Cor. xi. 5.

                               He keepeth the commandments of the blessed Christ in all things,
                               His works shine brightly before men,
                               Who follow his holy and admirable example,
                               Whence also they glorify the Lord his Father which is in heaven.

                                                                          John xiv. 15; Matt. v. 16.

                               Steadfast in the fear of the Lord, and immovable in faith;
                               On whom, as on Peter, the Church is built;
                               Who received his Apostleship from God.
                               The gates of hell shall not prevail against him.

                                                                1 Cor. xv. 58.; Gal. i. 1; Matt. xvi. 18


                               The Lord chose him to teach the barbarous nations,
                               To fish (for men) with the nets of doctrine,
                               To draw believers from the world unto grace,
                               That they might follow the Lord to the heavenly seat.

                                                                            Matt. iv. 19.

                               He trades with the choice Gospel talents of Christ,
                               Which he puts out at usury amongst the Hiberbian nations.
                               Destined hereafter, along with Christ, to possess the joy of the
                               heavenly kingdom,
                               As a recompense for this labour.

                                                             Matt.xxv. 14-30; John xiv. 3

                               A faithful minister and distinguished messenger of God,
                               He shows to the good an apostolic example and pattern;
                               Who preaches to the people of God, as well by deeds as by
                               So that by good works he may provoke those to imitation, whom
                               he does not convert by his words.

                                                                         1 Tim. iv. 6,12.

                               He has glory with Christ, and honour in this world,
                               Being venerated by all as the angel of God;
                               Whom God sent, even as Paul , to be an Apostle to the Gentiles,
                               To guide men unto the kingdom of God.
                                                                     2 Tim i. 11; Gal i. 1.

                               Humble, through fear of God, both in spirit and behaviour,
                               Upon whom on account of his good actions rests the Spirit of the
                               Who beareth in his righteous flesh the marks of Christ,
                               In whose cross alone he glories and sustains himself.

                                                                           Gal vi. 14-17.

                               He diligently feedeth believers with heavenly food,
                               Lest those who are seen with Christ should faint by the way:
                               To whom he distributes the words of the Gospel like the loaves
                               In whose hands they are multiplied like the manna.

                                                 Matt. xv. 32; Exod. xvi 14-18; John vi.11.

                               Who, through the love of God, keepeth his flesh pure,
                               Having prepared it to be a temple for the Holy Spirit,
                               By whom it is constantly possessed with good motions;
                               And who offers up his body a living sacrifice, well-pleasing to the

                                                        John iii. 3; 1 Cor vi.19; Rom xii. 1.

                               He is a great and burning evangelical light of the world,
                               Set upon a candlestick, shining unto the whole world;
                               A strong city of the king, set upon a hill,
                               In which is much store of the riches of the Lord.

                                                               John v. 35; Matt. v. 14,15.

                               He shall be called the greatest in the kingdom of heaven
                               Who fulfils, by good works, what he teaches in his holy
                               He goes before with a good example, and a pattern to the
                               And in a pure heart has faith towards God.

                                                          Matt xviii. 1-3; 1 Tim iii. 9; iv. 12.

                               He boldly preaches the name of the Lord to the Gentiles,
                               To whom he gives the eternal grace of the laver of salvation;
                               For whose offences he daily prays to God;
                               For whom also he offers up sacrifices worthy of God.

                                          Acts ix. 29, Jas. v. 16; Phil iv. 18; Heb. xiii. 15,16.

                               He despises all the glory of the world, in comparison with the
                               Divine law,
                               Counting all things as but chaff, compared with Christ's table;
                               Nor is he disturbed by the violence of the thunder of this world;
                               But rejoices in tribulation when he suffers for Christ.

                                                                    Phil. iii. 8; Acts v. 41.

                               A good and faithful shepherd of the Gospel-flock,
                               Chosen by God, to watch the people of God,
                               And to feed, with Divine doctrines, the nation;
                               For which, after the example of Christ, he is giving his life .

                                                               John x. 14; xv. 13; xxi. 15.

                               Whom the Saviour advanced for his merits, to be a Bishop,
                               That he might exhort the clergy in the heavenly warfare;
                               To whom he distributes the bread from heaven, along with
                               Which is fulfilled in his divine and holy discourses.

                                                    1 Tim. i. 18; John vi. 11; Matt. xxii. 11.

                               A messenger of the king, inviting believers to the marriage ,
                               Who is arrayed in the wedding garment;
                               Who draws the heavenly wine in heavenly vessels,
                               Pledging the people of God in the spiritual cup.

                                                                            Matt. xxii. 2.

                               He finds in the sacred volume a sacred treasure,
                               Which he purchases with his holy and perfect merits.
                               He discerns also the Godhead of the Saviour in the flesh.
                               He is named Israel, beholding God in his spirit.

                                                           Matt. xiii. 44; Gen. xxxii.28, 30.

                               A faithful witness of God in the Catholic doctrine.
                               Whose words are seasoned with the Divine oracles..
                               So that they are not corrupted, like human flesh, and eaten of
                               But are salted with a heavenly savour for the sacrifices.

                                                                 Mark ix 48-50; Col. iv. 6.

                               A true and excellent cultivator of the Gospel field,
                               Whose seeds are seen to be the Gospels of Christ,
                               Which he sows from his divine mouth in the ears of the wise,
                               And tills their hearts and minds with the Holy Spirit.

                                                                Matt. xiii. 1-9; Mark iv. 14.

                               Christ chose him to be his vicar on the earth,
                               Who liberates captives from a two-fold bondage;
                               And of the many whom he has redeemed from the bondage of
                               Releases numberless persons from the dominion of the devil.

                                                                 Isai. lxi. 1; John viii. 31.

                               He sings Hymns, with the Apocalypse, and the Psalms of God,
                               On which he discourses, for the edification of the people of
                               Which Scripture he believes, in the Trinity of the sacred Name,
                               And teaches the One substance in Three Persons.

                                                                            Rom. xv. 4.

                               Girt with the girdle of the Lord, by day and night,
                               He prays without ceasing to the Lord God,
                               Receiving the reward of which great labour,
                               He shall reign with the Holy Apostles over Israel.

                                         Isaiah xi. 5; Eph. vi. 14; 1 Thes. v. 17; Matt. xix. 28.

                               Translated by Dr. Graves, Lord Bishop of Limerick, 1853.
                               As published in "The Epistles & Hymn of Saint Patrick", by
                               Thomas Olden, Dublin, 1876.
Secundinus,(A.K.A. Sechnall)  was mentioned in  "Leabhar
                       Breac" (9th century) as being the son of Patrick's sister Liamania

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The Monks of  St. Patrick

     Popular Quotation, by Thomas Brooksbank: pp. 630-631
          p. 630
 For another illustration of this eccentric
                                         taste for playing at monks, we must cross
                                      over into the sister-island, and go back to the
                                      close of last century, and the last days of the
                                         Irish Parliament. At that most brilliant
                                       period of Irish history, more wit and talent
                                         were gathered together in the metropolis
                                       than it will ever be the fortune of that coun
                                          try to look upon again. Strange to say,
                                        this brilliant aggregate, we suppose by way
                                      of concentrating its spirit, fell into conven-
                                        tual shape; and thus was founded the order
                                       of the Monks of St. Patrick, better known as
                                          the Monks of the Screw. It would be an
                                         idle task to enumerate here all that com-
                                           posed that choice company; it will be
                                        enough if we mention that in its ranks were
                                         to be found the honored names of Grattan,
                                         Curran, Barry the painter, ilussey Burgh,
                                          Ponsonby, Corry, and Father O’Leary; ot
                                         Lords Avonmore, Arran, Carhampton, Char-
                                         lemont, Kingsborough, Mornington, Towns-
                                         hend, and Kilwarden. Nearly every one 01
                                       its members attained to eminence in their re-
                                       spective professions, the brethren furnishing
                                       chief-justices, chancellors of the exchequer,
                                       judges, and serjeants for many years to come.
                                        It will be seen, from the character of thc
                                        members, that their meetings were of a very
                                       different description from the wild orgies oi
                                       similar institutions on the other side of thc
                                               Every Saturday evening the community
                                          assembled in chapter in Lord Tracton’:
                                        House, arrayed in the canonical costume of
                                         black tabinet frock and cowl, with a cork
                                          screw hanging from the waist by way ol
                                        rosary. The chair was usually filled by th~
                                          prior, the facetious Mr. Curran, who ir
                                         that capacity, as may be imagined, was al
                                          that could be wished; Judge Johnson di’
                                        duty as sacristan; and Mr. Doyle, a maste.
                                          in Chancery, officiated as abbot. Thoa~
                                        chapter-nights were often looked back to I~
                                        after years with fond and vain regrets; an’
                                        no wonder, for they were true feasts of rea
                                         son, unalloyed with any feeling that migh
                                         hereafter come back on them attended wit1
                                                     shame or regret.

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The Birth of St. Patrick

On the eighth day March it was some people say
That St. Patrick on Midnight he  first saw the day
While others declared 'twas the  ninth he was born
But was often mistaken between midnight and morn.

Mistakes will occur in hurry and shock
While some blamed the blamed the baby Some blamed the clock
With all the questions sure no one would know
If the clock was too fast or the child was too slow.

The first faction fight in olde Ireland they say
It was all in account of St. Patrick's birthday
Some fought for the eighth for the ninth some would die
Wouldn't see right sure they'd blacken his eye

Till at last all the factions so positive grew
They both kept a birthday so Pat then had two
But father Mulchey showed them their sin
Said no one could have two birthdays but for twins

So boys don't be fighting for eight or for nine.
Don't be always dividing sometimes combine
Combine eight with nine seventeen was the mark
So let that be his birthday amen said the clerk

He was not a twin so our history will show
But he sure is worth any two saints that we know
So we all got blind drunk which completed our bliss
And we keep up the practice from that day till this.

-As sung by Leo Mccaffrey transcribed by Margaret C.Bladey (To the tune of the Olde Orange flute)

ABC Notation
X: 2
T:The Old Orange Flute
S:The Orange Lark
A|d2e2 c2|d2A2F2|G2F2G2|A4
AA|d2A2A2|A2B2 =c2|B2G2G2|G2A2



(Version 2)

Samuel Lover. From " Songs and Ballads."

ON the eighth day of March it was, some people say,
That Saint Patrick at midnight he first saw the day;
While others declare 'twas the ninth he was born,
And 'twas all a mistake between midnight and morn ;
For mistakes will occur in a hurry, and shock,
And some blamed the babby—and some blamed the clock— '
Till with all their cross questions sure no one could know
If the child was too fast—or the clock was too slow.
Now the first faction fight in owld Ireland, they say,
Was all on account of Saint Patrick's birth-day,
And who wouldn't see right, sure they blacken'd his eye!
Some fought for the eighth—for the ninth more would die,
That each kept a birth-day—so Pat then had two,
At last, both the factions so positive grew '
Till Father Mulcahy, who showed them their sins,
Said " No one could have two birth days but a twins."
Says he, " Boys, don't be fighting for eight or for nine,
Don't be always dividing—but sometimes combine; *
Combine eight with nine, and seventeen f is the mark,
So let that be his birthday."—" Amen," says the clerk. "
If he wasn't a twins, sure our hist'ry will show—
That, at least, he's worth any two saints that we know!"
Then they all got blind drunk—which completed their bliss,
And we keep up the practice from that day to this. •
This is a very homely way of saying what Moore has more elaborately turned into
polished verse :— "'
Twas fate," they'l say, "a wayward fate
Your web of discord wove,
And while your tyrants join*d, in hate,
You never joined in love."
t The 17th of March is St. Patrick's Day


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The whole wide world is Irish, St. Patrick's Day!

You may never get over to Ireland to visit the Mountains of Mourne
Or wander in old Killarney, or kiss the Blarney Stone
You may never get over to Dublin, kiss colleens in Donaghadee
Or sit beside the Shannon, gazing out to sea . . .
Though your folks never saw Tipperary
or traveled the boreens of Clare
And none of them swung a shillalie in Kilkenny, Kilcoole or Kildare
Your name may be Schmidt, not O'Reilly,
Minnelli instead of O'Shea
Or maybe wee Robbie from Scotland,
or Gaston Dupuis de Grande Pre'
But nobody bothers about it;
who cares where your folks may be found
You pedigree just doesn't matter at all when March 17th rolls around.
"Tis the day for the brogue and the blarney,
when green is the color that's worn
And everyone smiles at their neighbor
as they bid you a "Top of the Morn'"
There's magic in each little shamrock,
St. Patrick arranged it that way
Ah, 'tis sure and begorrah
the whole wide world is Irish, St. Patrick's Day!

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The Proclamation
by John Greenleaf Whittier

President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipation was issued January 1, 1863.

Saint Patrick, slave to Milcho of the herds
Of Ballymena, wakened with these words
"Arise, and flee
Out from the land of bondage, and be free!"

Glad as a soul in pain, who hears from heaven
The angels singing of his sins forgiven,
And, wondering, sees
His prison opening to their golden keys,

He rose a man who laid him down a slave,
Shook from his locks the ashes of the grave,
And outward trod
Into the glorious liberty of God.

He cast the symbols of his shame away;
And, passing where the sleeping Milcho lay,
Though back and limb
Smarted with wrong, he prayed, "God pardon him!"

So went he forth; but in God's time he came
To light on Uilline's hills a holy flame;
And, dying, gave
The land a saint that lost him as a slave.

O dark, sad millions, patiently and dumb
Waiting for God, your hour at last has come,
And freedom's song
Breaks the long silence of your night of wrong!

Arise and flee! shake off the vile restraint
Of ages; but, like Ballymena's saint,
The oppressor spare,
Heap only on his head the coals of prayer.

Go forth, like him! like him return again,
To bless the land whereon in bitter pain
Ye toiled at first,
And heal with freedom what your slavery cursed.


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Saint Patrick felt such pity for the Irish folk, who lived
in deadly sin and false belief, that he constantly besought
them to turn to God and obey His law, but they were so
full of wickedness that they scorned every word he spoke.
They all said that they would not repent nor cease from
evil unless he would undertake the adventure of going
down into hell to bring them back tidings of the pain and
woe which souls suffer there evermore. The saint was
sorely dismayed upon hearing this, and, often, with fasting
and prayer, he begged Jesus Christ to grant him the grace
to find a way by which he might bring the people of Ireland
out of bondage to the fiend, and lead them to believe
in God Omnipotent.
Once, while he was in holy church, praying thus, he
fell asleep before the altar, and began to dream of heaven's
bliss ; he thought that Jesus came to him and gave him a
book such as no clerk can ever write, telling all manner of
good tidings of heaven and earth and hell, and of God's
mystery. Into his hand God put a fair staff, which to this
day is called, in Ireland, God's staff. And God led him
straightway thence into a great desert where was a secret
opening, grisly to see. Round it was, and black; in all
the world it has no mate. When Saint Patrick saw that
sight he was greatly troubled in his sleep, but God revealed
to him that if a man who had sinned against the holy law
and yet truly repented should do penance in this hole, a . .
i See Notes.

day and a night, his sins would be forgiven him. If the
man were of good faith, steadfast in belief, he should see
the strong pains of those who have sinned in this world,
but should not suffer himself, and finally, he should behold
the joy that lasts for aye in paradise. Then Jesus withdrew
his gracious countenance and left Patrick there alone.
When the saint awoke he found God's tokens, and, taking
them in his hand, he knelt to thank Jesus Christ for
revealing to him how he might turn the Irish folk to
amendment. On that spot, without delay, he had a fair
abbey built, in the name of God and of our Lady. The abbey
had no equal anywhere ; solace and glee and rejoicing
abounded for poor and for rich. White canons regular
were placed there to serve God early and late and to be
holy men. The book and the staff God gave him men may
still see. In the east end of the abbey is that grisly hole,
with a good stone wall all around it, and a gate with lock
and key. That very spot is called the right entrance to
Patrick's Purgatory, for in the times when this happened
many a man went down to hell, as the story tells us, and
suffered pain for his trespasses, and then returned again,
through God's grace. They all said, when they had come
out, that they had indeed seen the very pains of hell and
also the joys of angels singing to God and to his hosts.
That is the joy of paradise : Jesus bring us thither !
When the people of Ireland began to understand the joys
described by Saint Patrick, they all came to him and were
christened at the font and forsook their misdeeds. So
they became good Christians through knowledge of God
and the prayers of Saint Patrick. Now hearken, and I
will tell you about another thing, if you care to hear it.

n the days of Stephen, a king who ruled England
wisely, there was in Northumberland a knight who was a
brave and valiant man. He was born in that country, and -•
was called Owain. He knew much about battle, and he
was very sinful towards his Creator. One day, bethinking
himself of his sins, he was filled with dread, and he determined,
through God's grace, to be shriven and sin no
more. By chance, he came to the Bishop of Ireland, in
that abbey where the hole of penance was, and he confessed
and prayed that a sore penance be laid upon him,
for never again, he said, would he sin. The bishop was
glad of this promise, and, after rebuking Owain sharply
for his evil deeds, said that he must undertake many hard
tasks of penance. The knight answered, " Gladly will I
do what God ordains, though it be to go into Patrick's
Purgatory." The bishop, describing to him the torments
of the place, said, " Nay, friend Owain, that way thou
shall not go. Take some other penance in expiation of
thy sins." However, for all the bishop could say the
knight would not yield, so the bishop led him into the
holy church and taught him the law of God.
Fifteen days he spent in affliction, in fasting, and in
prayer, and then the prior, at the head of a procession
with cross and banner, brought him to the hole. The
prior said, " Knight Owain, here is thy way, go right forward ;
when thou hast proceeded a long distance and hast
lost the light of day, still keep directly north. Thou shalt
go thus under the earth, and then, very soon, thou wilt
find a great field where there is a hall of stone, unlike any
other in the world. Some light there is, but no more than
appears when the sun goes to ground in winter. Into that

hall thou shalt go and stay until folk come to solace thee.
Thirteen 1 men will appear, all serjeants of God, and they
will counsel thee about thy course through purgatory."
Then the prior and the convent commended him to God
and went forth, shutting the gate. The knight took the
way leading to the field where was the hall of stone. The
hall was the work of no earthly workman ; it was cleverly
made in fashion of a cloister, with pillars on each side.
When the knight had stood a long time, marvelling, he
entered. Soon, thirteen wise men appeared, all dressed in
white habits and with their heads newly tonsured. Their
leader, advancing, saluted the knight, and then sat down
to instruct him : "I shall counsel thee, dear brother, as I
have many another who has passed this way, to be of good
faith, certain, and without doubt, for thou wilt see, when
we have departed, a thousand fiends and more to lead
thee to torment ; take note that if thou dost obey them
in the slightest thing, thy soul will be lost. Keep God in
thy heart, and think how He suffered from His wounds.
Unless thou dost as I tell thee, thou wilt go to hell, body
and soul, and be lost eternally. If thou dost speak God's
high name, they cannot harm thee." When he had thus
counselled the knight, the leader and his fellows commended
him to God, and with benign looks went forth
from the hall.
Owain, left there in dread, began to lament and call
upon God. Soon he heard a piteous cry ; he could not
have been more frightened if the heaven had fallen. When
he had recovered from the fear caused by that cry, there
came flocking in a crowd of fiends, fifty score or more,
1 Fifteen, in other versions.oathsome things altogether. Crowding around the knight
they kughed him to scorn, saying that he had come in
flesh and skin to win the joys of hell forever. The master
fiend, falling upon his knees, said, "Welcome, Owain;
thou art come to suffer penance for thy sins, but thou
wilt get no benefit, for thou shalt have torments, hard
and strong and tough enough because of thy deadly sins.
Never hadst thou more mischance than thou shalt have
in our dance when we begin our sport. However, if thou
wilt do our bidding, since thou art dear to us, our whole
company will bring thee back with tender love to the spot
where thou didst leave the prior. If thou dost refuse, we
shall prove to thee that thou hast served us many a year
in pride and luxury, and all our company will thrust their
hooks at thee." Owain answered, " I forsake your counsel,
and will endure my penance." When the fiends heard this,
they made a great fire in the hall, and binding him fast,
feet and hands, they cast him into the midst of it. He
called upon our Lord, and at once the fire vanished ; no
coal nor spark was left, through the grace of God Almighty.
As soon as the knight saw this he grew bolder, realizing
that it was the treachery of the fiends to try his heart.
Then the devils went out of the hall, leading the knight
with them to a strange place, where nothing good entered,
only hunger, thirst, and cold. He could see no tree, could
hear no sound of wind, yet a cold blast blew that pierced
his side. At last the fiends brought him to a valley where
the knight thought he must have reached the deepest pit
of hell. As he drew nearer, he looked about, for he heard
screaming and groaning, and he saw a field full of men
and women, each lying face downward, naked, and with

deadly wounds. They lay prone on the earth, bound with
iron bands, screaming and wailing, "Alas, alas, mercy,
mercy, mercy, God Almighty ! " Mercy there was none,
but only sorrow of heart and grinding of teeth, which was
a grisly sight. That sorrow and misery is punishment for
the foul sin of sloth. Whosoever is slow in God's service
may expect to lie in purgatory in such torment.
That was the first pain that they inflicted on him, and
after he had recovered, they took him to a place where he
saw more misery. Men and women crying out, "Alas ! "
and " Welaway ! " lay there, faces upward, as the others had
lain with faces downward, with feet and hands and heads
nailed fast to the earth with nails glowing red. Owain saw
loathsome fiery dragons sitting upon them ; on others sat
black toads, newts, adders, and snakes that ate them, backs
and sides. This is the punishment of gluttony ; for the
love of God be warned, since that sin flourishes all too
widely. Owain thought a wind blew among them so bitter
and so cold that it overthrew all who lay in purgatory. The
fiends quickly leaped upon the sufferers and tore them
furiously with their hooks. Whosoever, man or woman,
is guilty of impurity in this life, shall suffer in that prison.
The fiend said to the knight, "Thou hast been unclean and
a great glutton, also; into this torment thou shalt be thrust
unless thou wilt return speedily the way thou didst come."
Owain said, " Nay, Satan, further still shall I go, through
the grace of God Almighty." The fiends would have seized
him, but he called upon God Omnipotent, and they lost
all their power.
They then led him into a spot where men never did
any good deeds, but only shameful and villainous ones.




In the fourth field this was, full of torments. There were
people hanging by the feet from burning iron hooks, others
hung by the neck, the stomach, the back, and in other
ways too numerous to mention. Some were hanging by
the tongue, and their constant cry was "Alas ! " and no
other prayer. In a furnace with molten lead and burning
brimstone boiling over the fire were many folk. Some
lying on gridirons glowing against the flames were people
whom Owain had once known, but who were now entirely
changed through the penance they suffered. A wild fire
surged among them, and all whom it seized, it burned,
ten thousand souls and more. Those that hung by feet
and neck were thieves, or the companions of thieves, and
wrought men woe. Those that hung by the tongue and ever
sang " Alas! " and cried so loudly were backbiters in their
lives. Beware, man or wife, it thou art fond of chiding !
All the places the knight came by were full of the pains
of purgatory. Whosoever takes the name of God in vain,
or bears any false witness, suffers strong pains there.
Owain saw where a grisly-looking wheel turned ; huge
it was, burning like a brand as it wound around, and covered
with hooks. A hundred thousand souls and more
were hanging from the wheel. The fiends turned it about
so fast that Sir Owain could not recognize anybody there.
Out of the earth came a burning blue fire; it smelled
foully, and it went around the wheel, burning the souls to
a very fine powder. The wheel that runs thus is for the
punishment of covetousness that now reigns everywhere.
The covetous man has never enough gold or silver or
even ploughs until Death fells him. The fiends said to
the knight, "Thou hast been covetous of winning land

and men ; upon this wheel thou shalt be placed unless
thou wilt return at once to thine own country." When he
refused, the fiends seized him, bound him fast upon the
revolving wheel, and cast him in the midst. When the
hooks tore him and the fire burned him, he thought of
Jesus Christ. An angel bore him from the wheel, and all
the fiends there could do him no harm.
Further he was led in great pain, until they came to a
mountain that was red as blood. Men and women stood
on it, in misery, it seemed, for they cried as if they were
mad. The fiends then said to the knight, " Thou art wondering
about these men who make such doleful cheer.
They have deserved the wrath of God ; soon they shall
have such a drink as they will not think pleasant." No
sooner had he spoken than there came a blast of wind
that took fiends and souls and knight up almost into the
firmament, and then cast them down into a foul-smelling
river that ran under the mountain of fire as an arrow from
a cross-bow. It was as cold as ice, and no one can describe
the pain that he suffered. Owain was almost drowned in
the water, and became so frenzied and faint that he was
well-nigh lost. As soon as he could think upon God he
was brought out of the water and carried to land. That
pain is the punishment of wrath and envy. Envy was the
blast of wind which cast him into the smelling water. Let
every man beware of it.
They led him forth quickly until they came to a hall
whose like he had never seen before ; out of the hall came
such heat that the knight began to sweat. He saw so foul
a smoke that he stopped, and when the fiends perceived
it they were pleased. " Turn again," they began to cry,"
thou shalt die, unless thou dost withdraw." When he
came to the hall door he saw misery, a half of which he
had never imagined. The hall was a place of torments ;
those folk who were in that prison were stripped of all
happiness, for the floor of the hall was full of pits, round
and filled to the top with brimstone, brass, copper, and
other metals all molten. Men and women stood in these,
screaming and crying as if they were mad ; some stood up
to the waist, others to the breast, and some to the chin.
Each man according to his guilt was fixed in that torment,
to suffer that great heat. Some bore around their necks
bags full of pennies glowing with fire, and such meat they
ate. These were usurers in this life. Beware, men and
women, lest such sin hinder you. And many souls there
walked upright, bearing false measures and false weights,
which fiends sat upon. The fiends said to the knight, "
Thou must bathe in this lead before thou go hence ;
because of thy usury and thy sin, thou must wash thyself
somewhat. Owain feared that torment, and called upon
God Omnipotent and His mother Mary. He was borne
out of the hall, from the pains and all the fiends, when
he made that outcry.
Soon he was frightened by seeing a flame of fire, mighty
and thick, spring out of the earth, like coal and pitch. Of
seven colors was this fire, and some of the souls burning
in it were yellow, some green, some black, some blue, and
some like adders. They were woful indeed. The fiends
took the knight to the pit, and said, " Now, Owain, thou
mayst find solace, for thou shalt shake with our fellows
in the pit of hell. These are our birds in our cage, and
this is our court and our castle tower. Dost thou think,

Sir Knight, that to those who are brought here anything is
sharp ? Now turn again, ere it be too late, before we thrust
thee into hell gate, for thou shalt never issue out of it by
means of any crying or calling upon Mary, or by any
other trick." The knight was firm, so the fiends seized
and bound him, and cast him far down into that dark,
evil, reeking prison. The farther down they thrust him
the hotter it was, and he suffered cruelly. With good will
and steadfast heart he called upon God Omnipotent to help
him out of that torment, and he was borne up out of the
pit, otherwise he would have been lost until the day of his
death. That suffering, which lasts forever, is for the foul
sin of pride.
Outside the pit he realized how God had rescued him.
His clothes were torn to pieces, his body was burned all
over, and he knew not which way to go. He changed color
when he saw more fiends, none of whom he recognized in
that strange place. Some of them had sixty eyes that were
loathsome and grisly, some had sixty hands. They said, "
Thou shalt not be alone, but shalt have us for company,
to teach thee the new laws, as before thou didst leam them
in that spot where thou wast among our fellows." The
fiends then led the knight towards a foul-smelling body
of water, such as he had never seen. It was many miles
in breadth and black as pitch. Owain saw passing over it
a very strong but narrow bridge. The fiends said, " Lo,
Sir Knight, seest thou this ? This is the bridge of paradise ;
across this thou must go, and we shall hurl stones
at thee, and the wind shall blow thee over and work thee
woe. Thou wilt never pass over this without falling into
the midst of our fellows to dwell forevermore. When thou

hast fallen down, then all our company will come and
wound thee with their hooks. We shall teach thee a new
sport, for thou hast served us many a day, and we will lead
thee into hell."
Owain beheld the bridge and the water under it, so black
and dreadful, and began to be sore afraid because of one
thing he noted : never did motes dance in the sunbeam
thicker than that company of fiends. The bridge 1 was as
high as a tower and as sharp as a razor ; narrow it was,
and the water running underneath burned with lightning
and thunder. He was exceedingly woful. There is no
clerk who may write with ink, nor no man who can think,
nor no master who can divine, one half of the torment
there is under the bridge of paradise. We are told that
there is the true entrance to hell. Saint Paul bears witness.
Whosoever falls down from the bridge will never
have redemption in any degree.
The fiends then said to the knight, " There is no need
for thee to cross this bridge. Flee pain, sorrow, and woe,
and we will lead thee fairly back to that place from which
thou didst come." Owain began to recall from how many
of the tricks of the fiends God had saved him, so he set
his foot upon the bridge, and felt no sharp edge, nor was
he at all afraid. When the fiends saw that he was more
than half over, they began to cry aloud, " Alas, alas, that
he was born, this knight we have lost from our prison ! "
When he was safely across the bridge, he thanked God
Omnipotent and His mother Mary, who had sent him such
grace, that he was delivered out of torment into a better

region. A cloth of gold was brought to him, he knew not
how except that God sent it. That cloth he put on, and
at once all his wounds from being burned were whole,
and he thanked the Trinity. Looking ahead, he saw what
seemed to be a stone wall. He gazed far and near, but
could see no end of this, which shone all of red gold.
Farther on he saw a gate, a fairer one may never be in
this world. It was made, not of wood nor of steel, but of
red gold and of precious stones, created by God out of
nothing. Jasper, topaz, crystal, pearls, and coral, rich
sapphires, rubies, chalcedonies, onyxes, and diamonds
were wrought into tabernacles. Richer they might not
be ; they had pillars small and beautifully fashioned, with
arches of carbuncles, knots of red gold, and pinnacles of
crystal. Inasmuch as our Savior is more skilful than any
goldsmith or painter in any land, so are the gates of paradise
more richly wrought than any other.
The gates unfastened themselves, and a fragrance like
balm came forth, of such sweetness that the knight took
fresh strength and thought that now he would be a thousand
times better prepared to suffer pain and woe and to
fight against all the fiends if he had to go back the way
he came. He went near the gate and saw approaching a
procession of folk with gracious countenances, bearing
tapers and candlesticks of gold and crosses and banners.
Popes there were, of great dignity, and many cardinals,
kings and queens, knights, abbots superior, monks, canons,
and preaching friars, and bishops who bore crosses. Minorite
friars and Jacobins, Carmelites and Austin friars, black
and white nuns — all manner of religious orders went in that
procession. The order of wedlock came also, with many

men and women who thanked God for sending his grace
to deliver the knight from torment by the fiends, and to
bring him alive to that spot. When the praises had thus
been sung, two archbishops came out of the midst of that
company, bearing palms of gold. They advanced to the
knight, and, taking him between them, led him up and
down, and showed him still greater joys and also much
melody. Merry were their carols of joy and minstrelsy.
They went carolling with a joy no man can divine, singing
and praising God ; angels guided them with harps and
fiddles and psaltery, and bells rang merrily. No man may
carol there except him who is clean from sin and who has
given up all folly. Now may God and His mother Mary,
in memory of Thy wounds, grant that we may carol in
that hall. This same joy is granted for love and charity
towards God and all mankind. Whosoever lets earthly
love alone and loves God in Trinity may carol thus.
Other joys he saw in abundance : high trees, with many
branches, on which the birds of heaven sat and sang their
notes with merry glee, some low, some intermediate, and
some high. He thought indeed that with the song of
those birds he might live happily there until the end of
the world. Then he saw the tree of life, because of which
Adam and his wife went to hell. Fair were the arbors,
there, with flowers, — roses and lilies of many colors,
primroses and periwinkle, mint, featherfoy and eglantine,
columbine, and many others, more than man can think.
Herbs of other kinds than on earth grow there, though
that is the least of the praises of the place. Forever they
spring up green, sweeter than licorice, unchanging in
winter and summer.

There are wells in that spot, with water sweeter than
any mead, and out of the chief one which Owain saw, run
the four streams of paradise. Pison, they call one stream
that gleams brightly, because men find gold there ; Gihon
is another that is much praised for the precious stones in
its bed; the third stream is named Euphrates, it runs
straight along ; and the fourth is Tigris, in all the world
is there none other with stones so bright. Whosoever
loves to live in purity shall have that same bliss and see
that same sight. More Owain saw there, under God's
glory on high ; blessed be His might !
Some souls he saw apart by themselves, and some in
groups of ten or twelve ; and when they met together they
made as much rejoicing as sister does with brother. Some
he saw going about in scarlet red, some in purple well
wrought, and others in thin silk. They wore tunics and
albs, like what the priest wears at mass, some covered with
gold work. The knight knew well by their clothing in what
state they were, and what deeds they had done when they
were men's companions. I will tell you a fair similitude
drawn from the clear stars; inasmuch as one star is
brighter to the sight and of more power than three others,
so is it with the joys of paradise. They are not all alike,
yet he who has the least joy thinks he has the most of all
and calls himself very rich.
The bishops came again and, taking him between them,
led him up and down and said, " Brother, God be praised,
thy wish is fulfilled. Now listen to our counsel. Thou hast
seen with thine eyes both the joys and the pains. We will
tell thee ere thou dost pass hence, of our common fate.
That land that is so full of sorrow, evening and morning,

where them as well as many other souls didst suffer
sorely, is called by men purgatory. And this land, where
thou now art, so wide and spacious and so full of bliss, is
called paradise. No man may come here until he has been
purged and made clean there. When they come hither,
we lead them into joy, sometimes by groups of twelve and
ten. And some are so bound, that they know not how long
they must endure the heat ; but if their friends who are left
on earth have masses sung, or else give food or some other
kind of alms, all the better will these folk speed and will
come out of their misery into this paradise, where joy and
bliss ever are, and will live here in perfect peace. Just as
they come out of purgatory, so pass we on to God's glory,
which is the high kingdom of the celestial paradise, wherein
enter only Christian folk to a joy unequalled. When we
come out of the fire of purgatory we cannot pass at once into
that place nor see God's face, but must dwell here a long
time. Even the child born tonight must pass through that
pain before he can enter heaven, and how much harder is
it for an old man who has been long in sin to come hither! "
Forth they went until they saw a very high mountain
where all was pleasure. Finally they came to the top, and
saw all its joys. There were all manner of bird songs ;
much delight was there and evermore shall be. There is
more joy in a bird's mouth than in any harp or fiddle or
crouth,1 whether on land or sea. That land so fair is called
the terrestrial paradise; the other paradise, which is the
kingdom of God, is above the air and has joys unequalled. (
In the earthly paradise Owain was, which Adam had lost,
and if Adam had done according to the will of God, neither

he nor his offspring would have had to depart out of that
joy. Yet, since Adam broke God's commandment so soon,
God made him delve with pick and spade in the earth, to
help his wife and himself. God was very wroth with him.
An angel of stern countenance, bearing a sword of fire,
came and made them sore afraid, and drove them out into
the world, where they lived evermore in sorrow and woe.
And when he died he came to hell, as did all his descendants,
until the Son of God was born, by whose passion and
death man was brought out of that prison.) 1
The bishops commanded the knight to tell them whether
heaven seemed white or gray, blue or red, yellow or green.
The knight answered, " Methinks it is a thousand times
brighter than any gold." " Yet," said the bishop, " that
very place which is so bright is only the entrance, and
every day, to make us blithe, we are refreshed by a sweet
fragrance, which is food to our soul." Anon the knight
was aware that a flame of fire issued out from heaven's
gate, and he thought that it flew all over paradise, giving
forth a sweet smell. The Holy Ghost, in form of fire,
alighted then upon the knight, by whose virtue he lost all
his earthliness ; and for this he thanked God's grace.
Then the bishop said, " God feeds us each day with
His bread, but we have no such knowledge of His grace,
nor such a vision of His face as have those who are on
high. The souls who are at God's feast have joy that lasts
without end. Now thou, because of our common fate,
must return again the way thou didst come. Keep thyself
from mortal sin, so that when thou art dead thou mayst
be led by angels into the joy that has no end."
Then Owain wept bitterly and prayed for GojJ's mercy
1 Here is
a gap of two stanzas and more, pursuing the theme of Adam.

that he might dwell there and might not behold again the
strong pains of hell. From his prayer he got no gain ; so
he took his leave and departed, although he was very sorrowful.
Fiends he saw — ten thousand flying from him fast
as arrows from a cross-bow. When he came to the hall
he found the thirteen men therein. They all held up their
hands, and thanked the mercy of Jesus Christ a thousand
times and more, and bade Owain not to rest until he had
returned to Ireland as quickly as he could go. And, as I
find in the story, the prior of the purgatory had a token
that night that Owain had overcome his woes and would
appear on the morrow, through grace of God Almighty.
Then the prior, at the head of a procession with cross
and banner, went at once to the hole where Owain had
gone, and soon they saw a gleam of light like a bright fire
burning ; then in the midst of the light came Owain, the
knight of God. Then they knew well that Owain had
been in paradise and in purgatory, and that he was a holy
man. They led him into holy church, to do God's office
and to say his prayers. On the fifteenth day, the knight
took staff and scrip and sought the holy place where Christ
bought us so dearly upon the cross and where He rose
from death to life through the virtue of His five wounds.
Blessed may He be ! And Bethlehem, too, he visited,
where Christ was born of Mary, His mother like the flower
of the thorn. At last, returning to Ireland, Owain took the
monk's habit and lived there seven years. When he died
he entered, truly, into the high joys of paradise, through
the help of God's grace. Now for the love of Saint Owain,
may God grant us the bliss of heaven above, in the presence
of His sweet face ! Amen !


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This translation is a free rendering of a poem found in the famous
Auchinleck manuscript, a collection of popular poetry copied in the
fourteenth century. A description of this manuscript will be found in
Scott's edition of " Sir Tristem." The poem is in the six-line, tail-rime
stanza which was much used in romances of the day. There are other
versions of this legend in Latin, in French, and in English. Because
of its detail, this version, of the late thirteenth century, edited by
E. Koelbing in Englische Studien, I, 98, has been chosen, although
in some respects it is inferior in style to the other English versions.

Especially interesting is the picture of the earthly paradise, which is
nowhere else described so fully as it is here by catalogues and other
means. As an introduction to mediaeval religious beliefs the poem is
almost unequaled. Pilgrimages, even to this day, are made, by the faithful,
to Lough Derg, in Ireland, where Saint Patrick's Purgatory is still
continuing its saving grace.
Students of comparative literature recognize in the story a body of
tradition reaching back into remote times and forward to the Renaissance,
finding its most perfect expression in Dante's " Divine Comedy" (
1321). Mediaeval descriptions of hell and heaven were made more vivid
by adopting the literary form known as the vision. The most familiar
sort of vision is that which describes things seen in a dream, after the
author has fallen asleep. " The Pilgrim's Progress " is an example of
this type. Another sort of vision is that which relates what has been
perceived by some one in a state of mystical exaltation, as in the
Apocalypse of Saint John. The most realistic form of vision is that of "
Saint Patrick's Purgatory," where the experiences are described as if
actually undergone, and yet they so transcend human probability that
the reader recognizes the apocalyptic element. The term "vision" is
usually applied to poems describing mysteries of religious or moral
truth, and "dream" is applied to secular works such as "The Romance
of the Rose," and many other popular poems. Examples of
visions from various epochs should be read in order to trace the history.
Easily accessible texts in translation are
ST. JOHN. Revelation. (King James Version.)
HOMER. Odyssey, Book XI (translated by G. H. Palmer). Houghton
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1891.
VIRGIL. ^Eneid, Book VI (translated by J. Conington). The Mac-
millan Company, New York, 1910.
CICERO. Scipio's Dream (translated by C. R. Edmonds in the Bonn
Library Cicero). The Macmillan Company, New York.
BEDE. The Vision of Dryhthelm (in Cook and Tinker's " Old English
Prose," p. 58). Ginn and Company, Boston, 1908.
DANTE. The Divine Comedy (translated by C.E.Norton). Houghton
Mifflin Company, Boston, 1893.
The Pearl (translated by S. Jewett). Thomas Y. Crowell Company,
New York, 1908.
For critical studies of the vision and for exhaustive bibliographies of
the subject, see
Apocalypse. Encyclopaedia Britannica.WRIGHT, T. Saint Patrick's Purgatory. London, 1844.
KRAPP, G. P. The Legend of Saint Patrick's Purgatory. John Murphy
Company, Baltimore, 1900.
BECKER, E. Mediaeval Visions of Heaven and Hell. John Murphy
Company, Baltimore, 1899.
LANGLOIS, E. Origines et sources du Roman de la Rose, chap. v.
Paris, 1890.
For information regarding the dream motif in mediaeval poems, see
OWEN, D. Piers Plowman, A Comparison with some Earlier and
Contemporary French Allegories, pp. 134-167. Hodder and Stoughton,
London, 1912.
NEILSON, W. A. The Origins and Sources of the Court of Love. (
See " Dream-setting " in the index.) Ginn and Company, Boston, 1899.
Accounts of purgatory and of the terrestrial paradise will be found
in "The Catholic Encyclopaedia." Further details regarding the earthly
paradise are in Genesis ii, 8-17; Ezekiel xxviii, 13; "Phoenix," in
Cook and Tinker's " Old English Poetry " ; " Mandeville's Travels,"
XXXIII, and in Milton's " Paradise Lost," IV. Two critical studies of
importance are
GOULD, S. B. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. London, 1874.
COLI, E. II Paradiso Terrestre. Florence, 1897-Source: Legends and Satires from Medieval Literature.,Martha Hale Shackford, 1913.


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This celebrated Society was partly political and partly convivial; it consisted of two parts—
professed and lay brothers. As the latter had no privileges except that of commons in the
refectory, they are unnoticed here.
The professed (by the constitution) consisted of members of either house of Parliament,
and barristers, with the addition from the other learned professions of any numbers not exceeding  a third of the whole. They assembled every Saturday in Convent,* during term-
time, and commonly held a chapter before commons, at which the Abbot presided, or in his (very rare) absence, the Prior, or senior officer present. Upon such occasions all the members  appeared in the habit of the order, a black tabinet domino. Temperance and Sobriety always prevailed.  Mr. Curran (who was Prior of the order) being asked one day to sing a song, after  commons, said he would give them one of his own, and sang the following, which was adopted at once as the charter song of the Society, and was called " The Monks of the  Screw."

WHEN St. Patrick this order established.
He called us the " Monks of the Screw;"
Good Rules he revealed to our Abbot
With liquor the best in the sky;
And he said, on the word of a saint,
To guide us in what we should do;
But first he replenished our fountain
That the fountain should never run dry.

Each year, when your octaves approach,
Leave your favourite temptation behind you.
And be not a glass in your Convent,
 In full chapter convened let me find you ;
 And when to the Convent you come,
Unless on a festival found;
And, this rule to enforce, I ordain it
One festival all the year round.

My brethren, be chaste, till you're tempted;
While sober, be grave and discreet;
And humble your bodies with fasting,
As oft as you've nothing to eat.
Yet, in honour of fasting, one lean face
Among you I'd always require ;
If the Abbot should please, he may wear it,
If not, lot it come to the Prior, f *

The Convent was in St. Kevin Street, Dublin. t William Doyle (Master in Chancery) the Abbot, had a remarkably large full face. Mr. Curran's  was the very reverse.

And with due devotion prepare, "
With hands and with voices uplifted,
Come, let each take his chalice, my brethren,
Our hymn to conclude with a prayer.
May this chapter oft joyously meet,
And this gladsome libation renew,
To the Saint, and the Founder, and Abbot,
And Prior, and Monks of the Screw!

This Society consisted of 56 members; and Mr. Wm. Henry Curran, in the Memoir of his
father, adds "most of them distinguished men." I think it worth while to give a few of
their names and titles. Earl of Charlemont; Earl of Arran; Earl of Morning-ton, (Duke of
Wellington's father) j Hussey Burgh, Chief Baron; Judge Robert Johnson; Henry
Grattan; John Philpot Curran; Woolfe, Lord Kilwarden; Lord Avonmore; Eev. Arthur
O'Leary (Hon.). The Marquis of Townsend joined the Society while he was Viceroy of
That the festive meetings of men of such high mark must have been of more than ordinary
brilliancy, one may well conceive, but the most eloquent evidence of that fact was given by
Curran in a touching address to Lord Avonmore, while sitting on the-judicial bench; so
touching, and so eloquent, as well as happily illustrative of Curran's style, that it is worth
recording:— "
This soothing hope I draw from the dearest and tenderest recollections of my life—from
the remembrance of those attic nights, and those reflections of the gods, which we have
spent with those admired, and respected, and beloved companions, who have gone before
us; over whose ashes the most precious tears of Ireland have been shed. [Here Lord
Avonmore could not refrain from bursting into tears.] Yes, my good Lord, I see you do
not forget them. I see their sacred forms passing in sad review before your memory. I see
your pained and softened fancy recalling those happy meetings, where the innocent enjoyment  of social mirth became expanded into the nobler warmth of social virtue, and the
horizon of the board became enlarged into the horizon of man—where the swelling heart
conceived and communicated the pure and generous purpose—where my slenderer and
younger taper imbibed its borrowed light from the more matured and redundant fountain
of yours. Yes, my Lord, we can remember those nights without any other regret than that
they can never more return, for * We spent them not in toys, or lust, or wine,
But search of deep philosophy Wit, eloquence, and poesy, Arts which I loved, for they, my friend, were thine!'"—COWLET.  Lord Avonmore, in whose breast political resentment was easily subdued, by the same noble tenderness of feeling which distinguished Mr. Fox upon a more celebrated occasion,  could not withstand this appeal to his heart. At this period (1804) there wag a suspension of intercourse between him and Mr. Curran; but the moment the court rose, his Lordship sent for his friend, and threw himself into his arms, declaring that unworthy artifices had been used to separate them, and that the? should never succeed in future.And now for an instance of Mr. Curran's humour; and as it arises, like the foregoing gush  of eloquence, from allusions to "The Monks of the Screw," it is evident that Society held avery cherished place in his memory. Mr. Curran visited France in 1787, and was received with distinguished welcome everywhere,—among such receptions was one at a Convent, thus recorded. " He was met at the gates by the Abbot and his brethren in procession; the  keys of the Convent were presented to him, and his arrival hailed in a Latin oration, setting  forth his praise, and their gratitude for his noble protection of a suffering- brother of their  Church (alluding to his legal defence of a Roman Catholic clergyman). Their Latin was SO bad, that the stranger without hesitation replied in the same language. After expressing  his general acknowledgment for their hospitality, he assured them, that nothing could be- more gratifying to him than to reside a few days among them; that he should feel himself  perfectly at home in their society; for that he was by no means a stranger to the habits of a monastic life, being himself no less than the Prior of an order in his own country, the order  of St. Patrick, or the Monks of the Screw. Their fame, he added, might not have reached the Abbot's ears, but he would undertake to assert for them, that, though the brethren of  other orders might be more celebrated for learning how to die, the ' Monks of the Screw *  were, as yet, unsurpassed for knowing how to live. As, however, humility was their great  tenet and uniform practice, he would give an example of it upon the present occasion, and  instead of accepting all the keys which the Abbot so liberally offered, would merely take  charge, while he staid, of the key of the wine cellar."  Curran'a Life, by his son Win. Henry Curran.- From : The Lyrics of Ireland, Samuel Lover.1858


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From: Stories of Famous Songs

Ireland*s patron Saint, Patrick, has naturally, been the subject of many excellent ballads, in-cluding " St. Patrick's Day in the Morning," said to have been written by a gentleman named Wood, who adopted the nam de plume of " Lanner de Waltram," a very frolicsome pro-duction indeed, largely concerned with the con-sumption of punch. " St. Patrick of Ireland, my Dear," adapted to the melody of " The night before Larry was Stretched/' first appeared in "Blackwood'sMagazine,"December, 1821. The author's name is not given. " St. Patrick was a Gentleman:" this is a very quaint anonymous production relating all the " miracles" that the Saint is credited with performing, and which many of the illiterate believe in implicitly. A drinking or toasting song to his saintship entitled," Saint

Patrick was an honest soul," was very popular at one time. Another song, from a manuscript copy in the autograph of Sir Jonah Barrington, endorsed," Sung with great applause at a meet-ing assembled in the City of Paris, to celebrate the anniversary of the Saint of Hibernia." This was probably the 17th March, 1816, says Crofton Croker, in "The Popular Songs of Ireland"

(1839)- T h e s o n § i s c a I l e d " S t P atrick ' s Da y

in Paris." It possesses more merit in every sense of the word than any of the others. From Samuel Lover's song about the Saint's birthday, I give the two most striking stanzas:

" On the eighth day of March, as some people say, St. Patrick at midnight first saw the day ; While others declare 'twas the ninth he was born, And 'twas all a mistake 'twixt the night and the morn."

As neither side would give in, the parish priest hits upon a happy compromise which is here duly related:

" Now, boys, don't be fighting 'bout eight and 'bout nine, Don't be always dividing, but sometimes combine; Join eight unto nine—seventeen is the mark : Let that be his birthday—* Amen' says the clerk !"

There is also a modern song by J. F. Waller, LL.D., " St. Patrick's Day in my own parlour.5'

-From: Stories of Famous Songs Vol 2 P By S. J. Adair Fitz-gerald, c1901


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Air, "St. Patrick's Day."

THE white and the orange, the blue and the green, boys,
We'll blend them together in concord to-night;
The orange most sweet amid green leaves is seen, boys—
The loveliest pansy is blue and white.
The light of the day
As it glides away,
Paints with orange the white clouds that float in the west,
And the billows that roar
Round our own island shore
Lay their green heads to rest on the blue heaven's bosom,
As Nature thus shows us how well she can fuse 'em, Where sky and sea meet in the distance away.
We'll blend them in love on St. Patrick's Day.

The hues of the prism, philosophers say, boys,
Are nought but the sunlight resolved into parts ;
They're beauteous, no doubt, but I think that the ray, boys,
Unbroken, more lights up and warms our hearts.
Each musical tone,
Struck one by one,
Makes melody sweet, it is true, on the ear—
But let the hand ring
All at once every string—
And, oh! there is harmony now thal^is glorious,
In unison pealing to heaven away;
For union is beauty, and strength, and victorious,
Of hues, tones, or hearts, on St. Patrick's Day.

Let each Irish heart wear those emblems so true ;
Be fresh as the green, and be pure as the white, boys,—
Be bright as the orange, sincere as the blue. •
I care not a jot
Be your scarf white or not,
If you love as a brother each child of the soil;
I ask not your creed,
If you'll stand in her need
To the land of your birth in the hour of her dolours, Those hues in one bosom be sure to unite, boys;
The foe of her foes, let them be who they may;
Be the Irishman's toast on St. Patrick's Day. -From: The Lyrics of Ireland.,Samuel Lover, 1858


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According to the late Mr. Crofton Croker, who elaborately annotated this song, it is a
mosaic production, the work of many hands; three verses heing written in 1814, by a
couple of gentlemen who went to a masquerade in Cork as ballad-singers. These verses
grew into popularity, and other verses were added from time to time. By the bye, the
addenda, like the postscript of a lady's letter, are the best parts of the work, for, according
to Mr. Croker, the third and fourth verses are those in which the "Wind-worms" are
made to  and where " open their eyes To a sense of their situation," "The snakes committed suicide,  To save themselves from slaughter." Moreover, the sixth verse was supplementary, wherein that scientific classification is made of " Cabbages—and ladies!" Ladies and potatoes, however, are better classified, for, according to an old conundrum "
they both shoot from the eyes.''

OH! St. Patrick was a gentleman,
Who came of decent people :
He built a church in Dublin town,
And on it put a steeple.
His father was a Gallagher,
His mother was a Brady,
His aunt was an O'Shaughnessy,
His uncle an O'Grady.
So success attend St. Patrick's fist,
For he's a saint so clever;
Oh! he gave the snakes and toads a twist,
And banish'd them for ever!
The Wicklow hills are very high,
And so's the Hill of Howth, sir;
But there's a hill much bigger still,
St. Patrick preached his sarmint,
That drove the frogs into the bogs, Much higher nor them both, sir. 'Twas on the top of this high hill *
And banished all the varmint.
Oh, success, &c

. * This hill is reputed to be " Croagh Phaidrig," a mountain of bold outline, standing
over the picturesque bay of Westport, in the county Mayo; its conical top and general
outline are not unlike Vesuvius.

There's not a mile in Ireland's isle
Where dirty varmin musters,
But there he put his dear fore-foot
And murdered them in clusters.
The toads went pop, the frogs went hop,
Slap dash into the water,
And the snakes committed suicide
To save themselves from slaughter.
Oh, success, &c.

Nine hundred thousand reptiles blue
He charmed with sweet discourses,
And dined on them at Killaloe
In soups, and second courses.
Where blind-worms crawling in the grass
Disgusted all the nation,
He gave them a rise, which opened their eyes
To a sense of their situation.
Oh, success, &c.

No wonder that those Irish lads
Should be so gay and frisky,
For sure St. Pat he taught them that,
As well as making whiskey;
No wonder that the Saint himself
Should understand distilling,
Since his mother kept a sheebeen shop *
In the town of Enniskillen.
Oh, success, &c.

Oh! was I but so fortunate
As to be back in Munster, '
Tis I'd be bound, that from that ground
I never more would once stir.
For there St. Patrick planted turf,
And plenty of the praties ;
With pigs galore, ma gra, ma store, f
And cabbages—and ladies!
Then my blessing on St. Patrick's fist,
For he's the darling Saint, 0 !
Oh, he gave the snakes and toads a twist—
He's a beauty without paint, 0 ! *

To the English reader it is necessary to explain that a sheebeen is a low whiskey shop.
**In plenty, my love, my treasure. It is worthy of remark that the freedom of the Irish soil from all venomous reptiles,
which is vulgarly attributed to St. Patrick (as alluded to in this song), is noticed as early as
the year 840, by DONAT, an Irish ecclesiastic, who ultimately became an Italian bishop.
The allusion is made in some laudatory Latin verses, which have been thus rendered into
English;—(Vide "Specimens of the early Native Poetry of Ireland," by Henry E. Mont

Far westward lies an isle of ancient fame,
By nature bless'd, and Scotia* is her name—
Enroli'd in books—exhaustless in her store
Of veiny silver and of golden ore.
Her fruitful soil for ever teems with wealth;
With gems her waters, and her air with health;
Her verdant fields with milk and honey flow;
Her woolly fleeces vie with virgin snow;
Her waving furrows float with bearded cornj
And arms and arts her envied sons adorn.
No savage bear with lawless fury roves;
No rav*ning lion through her sacred groves;
No poisou there infects—no scaly snake
Creeps though the grass, nor frogs ** annoy the lake ;—
An island worthy of its pious race,
In war triumphant, and unmatched in peace, *

Scotia was the name belonging exclusively to Ireland up to the third century, in the
course of which the Irish colonised Argyleshire; Scotland was previously known as
Caledonia and Albania. Subsequently, to distinguish tbe two countries, Scotland was
called Scotia Minor. Spenser alludes to this in his " View of the State of Ireland," thus :— "
for those Scots are Scythians, arrived (as I said) in the north parts of Ireland; where some
of them after passed into the next coast of Albine, now called Scotland, which, after much
trouble, they possessed, and of themselves named Scotland .... therefore it cometh
thence, that, of some writers, Ireland is called Scotia Major, and that which is now called
Scotland, Scotia Minor." This distinction was well known on the continent, where the learned
Bpeakof the " Scots of Albany," and "Hibernian Scots." Bayle, in an article on an Irish
ecclesiastic and poet, who flourished in the fifth century, named " Shie!"—(Latinized, as was
the custom of the age, into " Seduliua ")—enters into a disquisition as to whether the poet and the ecclesiastic were not distinct persons, and in that article he speaks of "L1inscription d'un excellent manuscrit de L'Jfbbaie de Fulde" and that inscription is, " Sedulii Scoti Hyber-
rdemis in omnes Epistolas Pauti collectaneum" The Scotch, of recent times, are in general
singularly disinclined to admit these historic facts, though their own men of mark and
learning1 allow it to be true. Buchanan admits it. Sir Walter Scott admits the line
of Scottish kings to be derived from Ireland. James I. admitted the same thing, and gave
Jt as a reason why he should care for Ireland. But why, it may be asked, is all this old
history raked up for a note in a collection of songs ? Gentle reader, that is the very
reason why it is raked up; for Ireland had bards as well as kings, and these bards, and
their music, found their way to Scotland; and many an Irish air has Scotland claimed that •
he is not entitled to. Let an illustrious Scotchman speak in evidence—here are the words
of Robert Burns:—
" Your Irish airs are pretty, but they are downright Irish. If they were like the Banks of
Eanna, for instance, though really Irish, yet in the Scottish taste, you might adopt them.
Since you are so fond of Irish music, what say you to twenty-five of them in an additional
number? We could easily find this quantity of charming airs; I will take care that you
shall not want songs; and I assure you you would find it the moat saleable of the whole"—
BURKS to THOMSON, Sept. 1793.
The passages given in Italics in this bit of evidence show, not only that the airs were Irish,
but that Burns, as may be inferred, thought them superior to the Scotch; while Mr. Thorn-
eon, in a letter of his own, admits their high quality, at the same time reconciling himself to
his act of spoliation, right royally, thus :—
" We have several true-born Irishmen on the Scottish list, but they are now naturalized, and reckoned our own good subjects" (What regal condescension!) "Indeed, we have none
better."—THOMSON to BURNS, Feb. 5th, 1796,
Verdict for the plaintifl—the case being proved by the defendant's witnesses. For a
special case of a defeated Scotch claim, see page 38 in this volume,

**It is said by Mr. Henry R. Montgomery, i

that frogs were really unknown in Ireland until propagated from spawn introduced at
an experiment by a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. What a strange taste for experiments
this old gentleman must have had! Perhaps there is sympathy between frogs
and Fellows—«very freshman knows that, in the examination-hall, at least, Fellows are
rather given to croaking. It is a curious fact, too, that this very university was represented
in Parliament some forty years ago by the Eight Hon. John Wilson Croker.

-From:The Lyrics of Ireland., Samuel Lover,1858.


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