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Image Source: Report of the Maryland State Normal School Building Commission, December 31, 1915: Also an Account of the Dedication of the Buildings, November 19, 1915 By Maryland State normal school building commission, John Charles Linthicum Published by , 1915
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Chronology of American History
| As you study the lives of John Charles and Helen
Linthicum it might be helpful to comprehend the times in which they lived.
Quite exciting times indeed. Along with the events listed here keep in
mind that the times brought significant cultural, philosophical and
technological changes to which Charles and Helen had to adapt. These
changes also tend to separate the Linthicums from us philosophically and
culturally despite the fact that we are part of the same national and
cultural continuum. It is important that we adjust our perceptions
accordingly and to so to speak, put ourselves into their shoes. Perhaps
this timeline will help with that process. Keep in mind also that
throughout this period the sounds of music, the smells of the kitchen and
the look of clothing and of architecture should also be factored in as
they too changed through time and set the scene for the human dramas that
* 1861 - Confederate States of America (the Confederacy)
established in Montgomery, Alabama.
Charles and Helen Linthicum both came of age during the period of the "Gilded Age". It is therefore useful to reflect upon that time period a bit to gain an understanding of their cultural roots. Both Linthicums benefited from the accumulation of wealth that characterized the period. They also typified the dedication of Americans of the times to patriotism and the political process. Additionally the Linthicums played an important role as philanthropists helping others through clubs, and scholarships.
"In American history, the Gilded Age refers to major growth in
population in the United States and extravagant displays of wealth and
excess of America's upper-class during the post-Civil War and
post-Reconstruction era, in the late 19th century (1877-1890). The wealth
polarization derived primarily from industrial and population expansion.
The entrepreneurs of the Second Industrial Revolution created industrial
towns and cities in the Northeast with new factories, and contributed to
the creation of an ethnically diverse industrial working class which
produced the wealth owned by rising super-rich industrialists and
financiers such as Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew
Carnegie, Henry Flagler, and J.P. Morgan. Their critics called them
"robber barons", referring to their use of overpowering and sometimes
unethical financial manipulations. There was a small, growing labor union
movement, led in part by Samuel Gompers, who created the American
Federation of Labor (AFL), founded in 1886. It featured very close
contests between the Republicans and Democrats, with occasional third
parties. Nearly all the eligible men were political partisans and voter
turnout often exceeded 90 % in some states.
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One fine early Fall day in 2008 I read an article in the Maryland
Gazette concerning the creation of a new park and memorial to J.
Charles Linthicum. The article mentioned the Star Spangled Banner but
little else. I went out to the park to take a look at the monument which
you can see below. A fine granite monument in a quiet park with green
grass and new trees along the side of the historic railway track in
Linthicum. It is right across the street from the old Linthicum station.
The monument is a rectangular granite stone with polished sides and flat top with a metal plaque attached to the top with the lyrics and notation to the Star Spangled Banner and a flag and relief on its top surface. The impressive inscription on the side of the stone referred to Mr. Linthicum and his work authoring legislation which made the Star Spangled Banner the official anthem of the United States.
(From Baltimore Sun, March 1, 1981, Possibly Sweetser Portrait)The monument is beautiful and both the park and the monument make a welcome addition to the town of Linthicum which really needs all the beautification and formal architectural detailing it can get so as to project its identity in the center of the ever prevalent suburbs. The planners did a great job.
But as I stood there looking at the monument and thinking of J. Charles Linthicum- Something important is missing. Don't I have a picture of Mr. Linthicum in my bar- its been there for over 20 years now. Yes I do and I think he is there because of something he did in regard to Prohibition.
Well it turns out that he did. He was the man who launched the first legislation on the floor of congress that had as its goal the overturning of the 18th amendment which brought to our country the scourge and chaos of prohibition. Not only that that the fight against prohibition for Mr. Linthicum was his pride and joy. This is even more impressive in that he himself was a tea totaler! He realized that prohibition had brought more crime rather than less and that its enforcement was next to impossible (some what like the way the war on drugs today is looking) Surely it is important to recognize Mr. Linthicum's patriotism and dedication to this fight. So to be prepared I launched some serious research which has turned up the facts provided here. (As time goes by more will be added and more editing will occur but I wanted to get it right up on line asap so as to have the resources available to assist others in the consideration of my suggestions.
One of the most responsibilities of historians is to provide research which will project the relevance of their work to others. Here are a few thoughts and suggestions for the use of this information.
1. Education- Those going to the J. Charles Linthicum Park and viewing the memorial should have an opportunity to learn about he man. They can do so via this web page or publication to follow or at the park itself. Equipped with the essential ingredient of background knowledge the park will become not just a place to be but a place where the awesome accomplishment of Charles Linthicum and his family can become real. This is the essential way to utilize facts to inspire those of the present who must continue our struggles into the future. I envision an annual parade to mark the date of the Beck-Linthicum amendment and other activities that the county and local groups can create so that the inspiration of the monument and the place can be made real from year to year.
2. As an anthropologist I am amazed by the role that J. Charles Linthicum played in the history of the region. Linthicum and those of his generation growing up in the aftermath of the Civil War were living in dramatic change. Within one generation they had been transformed by the environment from patriotic farmers, generally Methodists, into Doctors, Lawyers, and in Charles Linthicum's case into a congressman who was a lawyer specializing in medicine.
Over one generation the farm houses of the tillers of the land had become country homes with the Linthicum's building their residences in town homes in Baltimore. A farmer no more Charles Linthicum became not only a congressman but a world traveler.
The local land records present a picture of ever increasing land holdings at the same time as income levels must have risen due to the higher levels of professionalization.
These must have been exciting times. The generation following the Civil War saw technology and transportation and industry all grow.
However, the importance of all this lies not so much in their past but in the future they would see unfolding. This is also the generation which saw the First World War and the Great Depression and the scourge and chaos of Prohibition.
Charles Linthicum, educator, lawyer, historian and congressmen stood on the heights of the achievement of his generation and looked into the chasm of war and the threat of the virtual destruction of life as it was then known.
So I guess the life of J. Charles Linthicum is a very good place to start to figure out both how the country grew and how it survived. He had a central role in it all with his personal experience of the transformation of the modern nation as well as his role within the government as chairman of the foreign relations committee at the center of foreign affairs. His one of the longest records of a congressman in history at the time he died.
*The history of property transfers within the Linthicum family is complex but important. Lateral transfers are especially important. Many of the land transactions reflect a consolidation of land holdings within the family as land holders within the family died. Could this be an outcome of a population of soldiers not returning from the Civil War? Other factors were probably economic with the viability of small holdings in doubt as technology modernized.
**Transportation also played an important role. Linthicum was at an early period attached to an important railroad - the Baltimore Annapolis which provided fast transport to the cities and brought in those seeking land and housing for residences. Here J. Charles Linthicum was also in the center of it all. How could a person hope to attend the major educational institutions which were then undergoing massive development without the rail land or other improvements in transportation? Charles attended the Normal School, University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University. These are all relatively distant from Linthicum.
***And something also for the women. I have included information here concerning the wife of J. Charles Linthicum- Mrs. Helen A. Linthicum. Mrs. Linthicum herself arrived with significant wealth from a past marriage. Her background as well as that of her husband can be traced to patriot ancestors as her genealogy created as a member of the D.A.R. demonstrates. If you read the newspaper accounts Mrs. Linthicum appears to be an example of the ever growing role of women in the history of the united states. She was not only in the society columns but is also written about as a member of political organizations as well as an officer in the D.,A.R. At one point she was represented in the paper as "Baltimore Matron" in a stand alone picture.
So I hope these few initial thoughts will be. inspirational and give some meaning to the dry facts assembled here. If you have anything to add please contact me at: email@example.com
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Spangled Banner And Fort McHenry
"an affair of honor."
Proposes National Museum
Mr. Linthicum Seeks Cannon and Thinks Fort McHenry Best Site
As the first steps toward building a historic museum within the confines of Fort McHenry so intimately linked with associations dear to patriotic citizens, the Government was requested yesterday to give to Baltimore a bronze cannon or field piece mounted on a carriage and six cannon balls to be used for exhibition purposes.
Congressman Linthicum introduced the bill in the House of Representatives, according to a Sun Bureau dispatch. In speaking of his action last night he stated it had been brought to his notice that the Government had a number of brass field pieces captured during the Spanish American War which were not being used.
As Fort McHenry is perhaps the most historic spot connected with Baltimore, said Mr. Linthicum, I believe it would be a good place to start a museum of historic things. It looks at present as though the bill, now in committee, authorizing the War Department to take direct charge of Fort McHenry will be favorably reported, and in that case it will be an additional reason for making it a museum of history.
-The Sun., June 8, 1912, Vol. CLI, Issue 23, p. 16.
(deleted history of the battle song and fort…
…"The country needed a national song to give expression to its patriotism. It wanted only the event to produce it and that event was furnished in the attack on Baltimore. This song of Key's aroused the dormant patriotism of the nation for human nature would not withstand its irresistible appeal to the love of country. It lifted the national spirit from the vale of gloom and despair in which it had been floundering to the sunlit heights of confidence and victory. It heralded the dawn of a new day to our Federal Government. In moral value it was worth ten thousand bayonets.
This, Mr. Speaker, is the story of Fort McHenry.
And now the environs of a great and populous city embrace the little fort which once so heroically defied the King's Navy and the royal forces of war. No longer is its position the outpost of the sentinel. It has become a place of sheltered security, nesting close in the bosom of that city with which its past is so intimately associated. Its walls, once a bulwark of defense, and its guns, once a guaranty of protection, have lost their power. Up to within a few weeks ago it still maintained with pathetic chivalry that position it could fill in name only. Time has ruthlessly robbed it of everything except its golden memories. But as long as our Nation lives, as long as noble deeds beget admiration or the love of country moves mankind, "The Star Spangled Banner" will be sung: and few who sing
"Oh! say, can you see by the dawn's early light"
will be able to refrain from going back in mental contemplation to the actual scene at Fort McHenry and dwelling upon that brilliant and stirring chapter which the little fort on the Patapsco contributed to the history of our second war with Great Britain.
The committee on Military Affairs in favorably reporting the bill now before this House said:
"It appears that in the present plan of national defense Fort McHenry no longer occupies a position of strategic military value, and that several proposals have been heretofore offered that it be converted to uses foreign to its present character as a military post. After considering this bill and hearing the statements of those representing patriotic organizations interested in the subject this committee is of the opinion that Fort McHenry is so intimately associated with historical events of vital moment in the early history of our country as to endear it in the affections of all Americans that its use for the sentiment which now attaches to it and that its preservation as a Government reservation under the control of the Secretary of War, and its partial use as a museum of historic relics would be absolutely appropriate with respect to this sentiment. The War Department states that the enactment of the measure will not conflict with the interests of that department and that there is no objection to its passage."
I trust this House will pass this bill. I hope that the little fort which has played such an important part in our history may be preserved to us and to the generations that follow., Its ground the shrine of patriotic admiration. I believe that in the near future Congress will see fit to do something even better than protecting from base use this historic spot. I want to see erected near the ramparts of the old fort, plainly discernible to the ships that now pass in peaceful and endless array, a beautiful monument to Francis Scott Key and to the defenders of Fort McHenry at the time of the British attack on that fortification.
-The Part Played by Fort McHenry and "The Star Spangled Banner" In Our Second War with Great Britain Speech of Hon. J. Chas. Linthicum Of Maryland in the House Of Representatives August 5, 1912., p.40.
512 JOINT RESOLUTIONS.
Majority of American citizens at large, has gone on record as
Resolved by the General Assembly of Maryland, That the
Resolved, That the Secretary of State of Maryland be and
Approved April 9, 1924.
Requesting Congress to pass Bill recently introduced in the
WHEREAS, Fort McHenry is the most notable national herit-
WHEREAS, In addition Fort McHenry is the hallowed spot
WHEREAS, A bill has been recently introduced in the House
H.R. 14 Seventy-first Congress first session. A Bill to make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the united States of America in Congress assembled, That the poem written by Francis Scott Key entitled" The Star-Spangled Banner," with music by John Stafford Smith, be, and the same is hereby ,declared to be the national anthem of the United States of America and under its care and protection.
H. J. Res. 47 Seventy-first Congress, first session.
Joint Resolution Proposing the adoption of the Star-Spangled Banner as the national anthem.
Whereas the Star-Spangled Banner for more than a century of use has become deeply enshrined in our hearts as the anthem of our country; and
Whereas tradition and history have always associated the melody and words of this immortal song with heroic deeds and patriotic endeavor; and
Whereas both the Army and Navy have adopted it as their anthem; and
Whereas on occasions certain musical conductors have been guilty of refusing to play it: Therefore be it.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Star-Spangled Banner be adopted and authorized as the national anthem of the United States of America, and that recognition be given to it as such on all appropriate occasions. Now, Mr. Linthicum, we will hear you.
Mr. Linthicum. Mr. Chairman before beginning the hearings, we will have the Star-Spangled Banner played by the band, Lieut. Charles Benter leader.
Mr. Celler. Of the Navy Band?
Mr. Linthicum. The Navy Band.
(At this point, the band played the Star-Spangled] Banner, the words being sung by Mrs. Elsie Jorss Reilley, of Washington D.C.).
Statement of Hon., J. Charles Linthicum, A Representative In Congress from the State of Maryland. Mr. Linthicum. Mr. Chairman, the purpose of H.R. 14, and of my colleague's bill H.J. Res 47, is to have Congress and the administration indorse as the national anthem the poem written by Francis Scott Key known as The Star-Spangled Banner. This poem has been promulgated by the Army and the Navy, approved by President, with music, almost from the time that man's memory runneth not to the contrary. Ever since the War of 1812; ever since it was written in 1814, it has been adopted by the Army and the Navy as the national anthem of our country. There have been suggestions at various times for some other song or poem to be adopted as the national anthem, but national anthems can not be written at any time-they are inspired. It has become dear to the hearts of the people. There must be an inspiration, there must be background for the creation of a national anthem.
This national anthem written by Francis Scott Key, as everybody knows, was written at old Fort McHenry, Md. Congress has provided funds for the rehabilitation of Fort McHenry. The fort has been reconstruction in the manner it was in 1814 during the war and when The Star-Spangled Banner was written. As Key stood on that ship, anchored out from Fort McHenry, on the 13th of September, he witnessed the battle between the British forces, commanded by Admiral Cockburn, at Fort McHenry and the Americans. He witnessed this battle throughout the entire day; he saw some 1,500 shells thrown at the old fort by the British forces and at night viewed the rockets red glare. This battle continued from 6 o-clock in the morning of the 13th throughout the day and up until the next morning. Francis Scott Key, laying out there in the harbor on this ship, viewed this whole battle.
Naturally, he wondered what the outcome would be, He realized that the British forces had invaded and captured Washington, and burned the public buildings and some of the other places, and he wondered what would take place at Baltimore, where they had assembled great forces. And so, with this great tension, he wondered what would be the result to his country, to his native land and to his city of Baltimore. Darkness grew on, he battle continued, and he was there on the ship. He could only know by a rocket or shell thrown once in a while from the old fort that the old fort was holding out and, as the morning came on, he tried to peer through the darkness and ascertain whether the old fort was still holding out and, as the darkness lifted and he saw te Star-Spangled Banner waiving from the fort, he was inspired- he not only had the ability, but he was inspired by patriotism; he was inspired by the fact that this old fort was holding out against the tremendous forces which had fought in the battles of Napoleon. And then came the writing of this poem, The Star-Spangled Banner.
And then came the writing of this poem,, The Star-Spangled Banner. No other anthem no other poem, no other author, could ever get the setting which Key got when at old Fort McHenry when his country's fate hung in the balance and, when that song, that poem, was written by him, everybody began to sing it. It seemed to unite the forces of the South and of the North; it seemed to bring to this country something which it had never had-a national anthem, which meant everything to patriotism and everything to the future of our country. So this anthem, written by Francis Scott Key, united us into one great Nation; it gave us patriotism; it gave us something to center ourselves about and it meant more to the cause of freedom and to the winning of this second war of independence than a thousand or ten thousand bayonets would have meant.
So we come here today to ask something which has never been done, and that is the adoption of this poem by the National Government s it should be, so that, in future years, as it goes down, people will recognize it as having been adopted b y the Congress of the United States and the President of this great Republic. I do not want to take too much time, but when you hear the music, or when you hear this lady sing it, or when it is sung anywhere, there seems to be an inspiration about us; there seems to be a feeling which no other music creates, there seems to be something in this poem in this anthem, which affects us as no other poem or anthem could affect us. (p.4.)
(p.2)"Statement of Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum, State Captain of the State of Maryland Daughters of 1812. Mrs. Linthicum- I have the honor to being the captain of the State of Maryland D.A.R. and I wish to say that every one of the societies of the Daughters of the American Revolution throughout The State of Maryland are all heart and soul for this bill, and I have very lately seen Mrs. Holloway and she has been very ill and she said, if she only could live to know this bill had passed, she felt as though she could see her Creator with satisfaction.
I also have the extraordinary honor of having named Constitution Hall and it is going to be my extreme pleasure to present to Constitution Hall that glorious flag that carries with it the Star-Spangled Banner. This flag will hang from the ceiling of that great hall. (Applause) pp. 17-18.
-Legislation to Make "The Star-Spangled Banner" the National Anthem. Hearings before the Committee on the judiciary House of Representatives, Seventy-first Congress, Second Session On H.R. 14.,Serial 3, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1930.
"Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland presented a large American flag to the Daughters this morning and asked them to get behind Congress, especially the Speaker of the House, to secure the passage of the bill to make "The Star-Spangled Banner" the national anthem"
-"D.A.R., Votes to Bar Dry Law Debates.", The New York Times, April 19, 1930. pg. 5.
Not to Become Federal Jail. Baltimore, Oct. 20- Attorney General William D. Mitchell today informed Representative J. Charles Linthicum the Federal government would not use the Fort McHenry property here as a jail for violators of the prohibition laws.
(Linthicum had fought against the proposal on behalf of several patriotic groups)-Morning Herald ., Hagerstown, Maryland, Tuesday, October 21, 1930| Page 1
"Rep. Linthicum Sees Victory On National Anthem. Has Tried Twelve Years to Get Bill Through Congress. Washington- Staid, serious Rep. John Charles Linthicum of Maryland believes that within a short while he will be in a position to enjoy the satisfaction of victory after a twelve year battle with congress.
For just that number of years Linthicum has persistently fought to have a bill passed-one that, because he has been so consistently turned back, he has come to regard as a sort of an affair of honor.
That bill is to have congress declare the "Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem of this country.
Since 1916 he has had a bill to this effect before the house of representatives almost continuously. But until this year, invariably the bill has died in committee or else crowded out in the rush of legislation.
A short while before the seventy first congress adjourned, however, the house did vote for passage of the measure. It went to the senate, but never came out of committee.
The Maryland chapter of the National Society of United States Daughters of 1812 first interested him in the matter. At the request of this organization he introduced the measure for the first time in March 1916. but after war conditions and the accompanying rush of legislation preventing his bill getting very far.
He reintroduced it in April of 1921 but it met the same fate.
In January 1923, it was introduced for the third time. Interest had increased. The house judiciary committee called representatives of various patriotic organizations to Washington and obtained their views. Four other representatives in the meantime had introduced similar bills. But in the closing hours of the 68th congress the bill was caught in the yarn and died.
Not to be daunted, Linthicum came back to the next congress and for the fourth time introduced his bill. His time it didn't even get out of committee.
By this time Linthicum had come to regard his bill as something akin to an affair of honor. He was determined that the house should have an opportunity to make an expression of some sort.
Therefore, when President Hoover convened the special session in April of 1929, despite the fact that it was to be limited to consideration only of tariff and farm relief, at the first opportunity he dropped his bill in the hopper for the fifth time.
And he pushed it to the point that exactly a year later the house did take it up, passed it and sent it to the senate.
Linthicum's contention is that the "Star Spangled Banner" is now considered by all as the national anthem. Since 1849, under orders from the navy department, the "Star Spangled Banner" is played at both morning and evening colors.
The anthem for the service, he says certainly should be the anthem for the people.
-Herbert Plummer, Decatur Daily Review, The | Decatur, Illinois | Friday, August 22, 1930 | Page 8
"Today marks 50th anniversary of our National Anthem. By Judge Edwards Delaplaine. The official adoption of the anthem is of special historical interest to Frederick not only because the author of the song was a former resident of this city but also because another former resident had a part in the progress of the passage of the bill through the halls of Congress.
It was during the First World War when Mrs. Ruben Ross Holloway, president of the Maryland Society, United States Daughters of 1812, urged Congressman J. Charles Linthicum of Baltimore to introduce " a bill to make Francis Scot Key's immortal song the National anthem. " He introduced it on April 10, 1918.
A few years ago, it was recalled that Linthicum, was not unfamiliar with Frederick County; as a young man he had served as a public schoolteacher in the one-room school at Old Braddock along the National Highway between Frederick City and Braddock Heights.
Soon after the 71st Congress convened on April 15, 1929, Linthicum introduced the national anthem bill once more. Eleven years had passed since the time he first introduced it.
the second session of the 71st Congress convened on Dec. 2, 1929, and on Jan. 31, 1930, hearings on the bill began before the House Judiciary Committee.
The bill came up for consideration on the floor of the House on April 21, 1930.
For the history of Frederick, it is a noteworthy coincidence that when the bill reached the floor the Clerk of the House was a former resident of Frederick. William Tyler Page, who wrote the American Creed in 1918.
William Tyler Page was born in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Walker Y. Page at ….When the national anthem bill came up for consideration on the floor of the House on April 21, 1930 Speaker Nicholas Longworth, who was Theodore Roosevelt's son-in-law, was in the chair, and William Tyler Page, then 61 years old was called on to read the bill that had been introduced by Congressman Linthicum, stating that the poem had been written by Francis Scott Key and the music had been composed by John Stafford Smith.
But, the Judiciary Committee had made a drastic amendment, striking out the name of Francis Scott Key and the name of John Stafford Smith leaving the brief form: "That the composition consisting of the words and music known as The Star-Spangled Banner is designated the national anthem of the United States of America."
Speaker Longworth then stated: "The question is on agreeing to the amendment." The amendment was agreed to and, thereupon, the bill as amended was ordered to be read a third time. It was read and declared passed.
William Tyler Page, the Clerk of the House, then had the duty, which was a real pleasure for him of certifying to the action of the house: "Passed the House of Representatives April 21, 1930. Attest: "W. M. Tyler Page, Clerk."
On the same day, the measure H.R. 14-- was read twice in the United States Senate and was referred to the Senate Committee on the judiciary. Then, the measure was discharged from that committee and, thereupon , was referred to the Committee on the Library.
After a long summer vacation the Congress reconvened on Dec. 1, 1930. It was the third and final session of the 71st Congress. As the session would come to an end not later than the third of March 1931, there was grave danger that the national anthem bill would, once more, fail of passage.
Mrs. Reuben Ross Holloway, president of the Maryland Society, United States Daughters of 1812, was not the only patriotic person who was deeply worried. Another worried American citizen was Captain Walter I. Joyce, a veteran of the Spanish-American War, and a leader in the Veterans of Foreign Wars. He had presented a petition supporting the national anthem bill which was the most immense petition ever presented to the Congress of the United States. According to Captain Joyce, the petition had been signed by five million American citizens.
On March 3, 1931 the final day of the final session of the 71st Congress, the fate of the national anthem bill was hanging in the balance. Mrs. Holloway appealed in desperation to Senator Millard E. Tydings a native of Havre de Grace, who although scarcely more than 40 years old, had become one of the most influential members of the Senate.
Presiding in the Senate that day was Vice President Charles Curtis of Kansas, who had been elected as Herbert Hoover's running mate in the contest against Alfred E. Smith and Joseph T. Robinson in 1928.
Because of strong pressure for action on legislation before the final hour of the final day of the final session, there was considerable tension on the floor of the Senate. Tydings was primed for action.
Because of his sagacity and tenacity, Tydings managed to persuade Senator Coleman L Blease, former governor of South Carolina, to withdraw an objection, and just before the close of the final session the poem/song written by Francis Scott Key in 1814 finally was accepted as our official National Anthem. On the same day, the measure received the signature of President Hoover…
-Frederick News-Post | Frederick, Maryland | Tuesday, March 03, 1981 | Page 1
"The Star Spangled Banner" is not the national anthem of the U. S. The U. S. has no national anthem, officially. In an effort to induce Congress to adopt Francis Scott Key's poem as the national anthem, representatives of many a patriotic and military organization flocked before the House Judiciary Committee last week to urge enactment of a bill for that purpose. The bill's author: Maryland's Representative John Charles Linthicum from the district containing Fort McHenry, over which Key, a prisoner on a British warship, beheld his country's flag still flying on the morning of Sept. 15, 1814, after an all night bombardment.
The high-vaulted committee room resounded with a sample rendition of "The Star Spangled Banner" by the U. S. Navy Band. Two sopranos sang all its four verses to prove that its words were not difficult, that its pitch was not too high. Proudly Captain Walter I. Joyce of the Veterans of Foreign Wars dumped before the Committee a great bale of documents which he said contained 6,020.000 signatures petitioning the anthem's official adoption. Said he: "I stood on San Juan Hill in '98 and heard four bands play that tune. All around me in pup tents men were lying sick with fever but when they heard that glorious old tune, every last man somehow got to his feet."
Dr. James E. Hancock, president-general of the Society of the War of 1812, denied that the tune was difficult. Said he: "Even the mocking birds in Florida learned the song from the buglers when soldiers were encamped there en route to Cuba in the Spanish War."
Representative Emanuel Celler of New York approved adoption of the song, but insisted that the name of James Stafford Smith be stricken out as the author of the music. The tune, he claimed, was taken directly from that of an old English barroom ballad sung by jovial members of London's Anacreon Club. The first verse of that song:
To Anacreon in heaven, where he sat in full glee,
A few sons of harmony sent a petition,
That he their inspirer and patron -would be,
When this answer arrived from the jolly old Grecian;
Voice, fiddle, and flute, no longer be mute, I'll lend ye my name and inspire ye to boot;
And, besides, I'll instruct you, like me, to entwine the myrtle of Venus with Bacchus's vine.
-"Wanted an Anthem", Monday February 10,1930. Time.,http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,738585,00.html
Prevent Use of Famous Fort As Federal Jail. Baltimore. Jan. 2. Fort McHenry which thwarted the British bombardment of Baltimore and inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner has been "saved" by patriotic Baltimoreans.
A suggestion was made in Washington recently that the historic fort be transformed into a prison for federal prisoners and brought vigorous protests from the Sons of the American Revolution, the veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion auxiliary. They had their representatives, Representative J. Charles Linthicum and Senator Millard E. Tydings democrats, to strenuously oppose such action event though Key was a prisoner aboard a British boat when he watched the rockets red glare bursting over the fort.
Linthicum said he was given the promise of William D. Mitchell, Attorney General whose department has charge of federal prisoners that the fort will not be placed to such use…
-The Lincoln Star, Lincoln, Nebraska, Friday, January 2, 1931, p.7.
The Star Spangled Banner is recognized in:
Title 36 of the United States Code Subtitle I—Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies Art A, Chapter 3.
One of the difficulties with the adoption of the song were claims that it was difficult to sing. Others did not approve of the origin of the tune which was that of an English drinking song. Lyrics provided below:
The ANACREONTIC SONG
as Sung at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand
the Words by
sic evitabile fulmen
roughly translates to "this repels thunderbolts" (It was a common
fusty = close or
stuffy, old-fashioned, of stale wine
The Anacreontic Song was created
for the Anacreontic Society. This London
Banner," From Ludgate Hill to Capital Hil"l. The Quarterly Journal of the
Library of Congress, 34 (3), 136-170.
“The Star-Spangled Banner” was one of two pet causes of Maryland Democrat J. Charles Linthicum. (The other was the repeal of Prohibition.) Linthicum took up the issue during World War I after the importuning of an eccentric Baltimore matron named Ella Virginia Houck Holloway, described by the Baltimore Sun as “an imposing figure [who] always appeared in public wearing a tall shako, a cylindrical beaver hat with plume, that rose a foot above her head.”
Mrs. Holloway’s ardor for the flag made her charmingly daft or a damned nuisance. She patrolled the streets of Baltimore, ever on the qui vive for violations of flag etiquette. If her portfolio was modest—chairwoman of the Committee on the Correct Use of the Flag of the United States Daughters of the War of 1812—her energy was boundless.
Rep. Linthicum pressed on. The United States needed an official anthem, or so he declared, and it had better have been written in Maryland. He brushed aside the numerous criticisms lodged against the “Banner”: that it was beyond the range of shower-stall singers; that its imagery was militaristic, and thus unsuited for a peaceable nation; that it was Anglophobic (in the third stanza, the mother country tracks in “foul footsteps’ pollution”); that it was Anglo-philic, borrowing as it does an English tune; that the music of a “ponderous old English booze-song” was inappropriate since the Prohibition Amendment had banished the demon rum from sea to tea totaling sea; and that imposing an official song on Americans went far beyond the legitimate powers of the federal government.
Leader of The "Wets"
Introduction- For the time being I will post information concerning the anti prohibition legislation here. As time goes by there will be clarification.
Image Source: John Philip Hill (left), outgoing congressional "wet" leader congratulating Rep. John C. Linthicum of Md., who was elected to succeed him as "wet" leader 1927, Maryland State Archives.
This is the uneventful prenatal history of the controversy over the President's executive order (TIME, May 31) authorizing the appointment of state and other local officers as dollar-a-year Federal prohibition agents so that they could make arrests not only in other cities and counties but also in other states......
There followed a few minor eruptions in the press and then more and more vigorous ebullitions in Congress.
More vigorous reaction came from some of the Democrats in the House. Representative Linthicum of Maryland exclaimed:
"We were on the verge of believing that the President had become a follower of the Jeffersonian policy of state rights rather than that of the Hamiltonian doctrine of centralization, but before the echoes of his Williamsburg speech [TIME, May 24] have died away, we find him entering upon the most centralized power of the national Government by this executive order." Not only the Wets who stood against the order, but also the opponents of the President—and that includes all Democrats and most Republicans, even those called Regulars—seized on the order as a means for making trouble. The questions of personal politics, of prohibition and of state rights were inextricably intertwined. But the Wets tried to press their advantage. Senator Bruce and Senator Edge would like a national referendum on prohibition. (It is doubtful if any legal way could be found to bring about such a referendum.) An apparently unusual event occurred—Senator Joseph T. Robinson, the Democratic leader, indorsed this idea. The current explanation of Mr. Robinson's support of the proposal is that he regards himself as a presidential candidate for 1928, and wants, to dodge the prohibition issue by a referendum or its promise."
-"A Turmoil"June7, 1926, Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,721992,00.html
What might be portended by a secret meeting, in Washington, D. C., of the following: James Wolcott Wadsworth, onetime (1915-27) U. S. Senator from New York; Edward Stephen Harkness, Manhattan philanthropist, and Charles Hamilton Sabin, Manhattan banker; Sidney Trowbridge Miller, Detroit lawyer-philanthropist; Pierre Samuel du Pont, Delaware industrialist-educator; Benedict Crowell, Cleveland engineer; Senators Walter Evens Edge of New Jersey and William Cabell Bruce of Maryland; Representative John Charles Linthicum of Maryland; and many another?
Among the others was Capt. William H. Stayton of Baltimore, active chief of the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment. That was what the secret meeting last week, at Mr. Wadsworth's house, portended. All those present were "Wets." They called themselves the Moderation League, Inc. They would not tell precisely what they talked about. All they would say was that the Moderation League Inc., without superseding Captain Stayton's A. A. P. A., would promote a national non-partisan movement to clarify Prohibition's place in 1928 election platforms.
-"Moderators"k, Time, December 26,1927., http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,751769,00.html
In the House, Representative John Charles Linthicum of Maryland, leader of the "wet bloc," was re-elected and so were most of his most vigorous bloc-mates—New York's Sirovich, La Guardia, Black; Illinois' Sabath, Britten; Missouri's Dyer. But Representative S. Harrison White, wet Coloradoan, is out and Maryland's John Philip Hill, Leader Linthicum's predecessor, failed to get back into Congress. All this in the face of the best efforts of the Association against the Prohibition Amendment.Prohibition's foes were, however, philosophical. They reminded prohibiters that 15 millions of voters had voted for the wet. The A.A.P.A. feeling was that not even high Hooverism will be able to carry the "experiment" to a satisfactory conclusion. And if, after all the hullabaloo, high Hooverism fails, who then can oppose modification?
-"America is Dry" Monday November 19, 1928 Time., http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,928188,00.html
"It was just the sort of argument that one would expect to hear if an average U. S. daycoach should be stalled between stations and a better-than-average red-faced Irish-American started talking loudly.
In the House of Representatives, the loud one was Representative James A. Gallivan of Massachusetts, whose specialty is alliterative abuse. Quoth he at the beginning of last week: ". . . Prohibition, its proconsuls, parasites, and plug-uglies . .,. has even reserved to itself and its allies a monopoly of murder—murder without penalty. The right to murder Americans abroad without fear or favor, it delegates to bandit organizations; the right to murder Americans at home by poisonous liquors remains with the Anti-Saloon League and its allied bootleggers, and the right to wreck and drown American sailors and shoot up foreign seamen goes to its rum cruisers.
"Floggings, gougings, and arson are the special privileges of prohibition's standing army—the Knights of the Nightshirt. . ." etc., etc.
As usually happens, thoughtful persons present held their tongues—for a while. But soon (next day) everyone was joining in. The Representative train, en route to supply moneys for the Treasury and Post Office Departments, but stalled by a proposed amendment to prohibit poisonous denaturants in industrial alcohol, became clamorous. The amendment had been offered by Representative John Charles Linthicum of Maryland, who cited the facts that 10% of all industrial alcohol in the U. S. has annually been leaking into beverage channels under Prohibition; that there were 11,700 deaths in 1926 from poisonous alcohol..... "
-"Representative Debate", Time., February 27, 1928
"The fight against prohibition in the campaign will be largely directed by a small group within the Association…Congressman J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland…Linthicum is the leader of the wet" Evidently Mr. Linthicum is none too sure of his group of ninety, for he plans to ask only sixty-four members to serve on the anti-prohibition committee he is about to organize in the House as a preliminary to introducing the wet bill that had its birth at Senator Wadsworth's house. of Representatives and as such will carry on as far as possible the legislation program recently decided upon by the conference at Senator Wadsworth's home….The chief feature of the Wadsworth group plan so far as Congress is concerned is a bill to amend the Volstead act by making its prohibitive clause refer specifically and exclusively to hard liquors and say nothing about wine and beer. Its advocates know that there is not one chance in a million for the passage of such a bill. It is to be put in as a part of a program to keep the fight alive between now and election"
-"Making Prohibition the Campaign Issue.", The New York Times., March 4, 1928.
"Representative Debate.", Monday, Feb. 27,1928.Time.
As usually happens, thoughtful persons present held their tongues—for a while. But soon (next day) everyone was joining in. The Representative train, en route to supply moneys for the Treasury and Post Office Departments, but stalled by a proposed amendment to prohibit poisonous denaturants in industrial alcohol, became clamorous. The amendment had been offered by Representative John Charles Linthicum of Maryland, who cited the facts that 10% of all industrial alcohol in the U. S. has annually been leaking into beverage channels under Prohibition; that there were 11,700 deaths in 1926 from poisonous alcohol.
Up stood Michigan's Cramton to say: "It is interesting to me to see what the policy is to be of the wet block in the House as presented by its newly chosen leader, the gentleman from Maryland. The policy of our other friend from Maryland, John Philip Hill, was to destroy the Eighteenth Amendment by authorizing beer and wine, but it is apparent that the gentleman from Maryland [Mr. Linthicum], the new leader, has on his banner, 'Hamstring enforcement in any way we can do it.'
…Next day, Wet Leader Linthicum took what satisfaction he could from a parliamentary victory, forcing the whole House to go on record on a Prohibition issue for the first time this session. But again his anti-poison amendment lost, 61 to 283, with 89 members not voting and 91 absent.
Prohibition in 1928, as finally provided for in the bill passed last week by the bickering Representatives of the People, will cost about $28,000,000—13 millions for the Prohibition Unit, 15 millions for the U. S. Coast Guard.
"What's What in Washington. By Charles F. Stewart. Washington, March. -Baltimore seems to be recognized as the wet citadel of the United States.
A person might have thought it would be New York.
But no. The house of representative's wet bloc leadership appears to go to a Baltimorean as of right.
Before Congressman John Phillip Hill's days in Washington there really wasn't a wet leader in the lower house. There was wet sentiment but it wasn't consolidated.
Hill quickly aligned it under his banner when he arrived on the scene three terms ago from the third Maryland district, which is part of Baltimore.
But for the next two years, at least Hill won't be available. He tried to get into the senate, was licked and thereby lost his status..
The wets had to elect a new standard bearer. They promptly and unanimously chose J. Charles Linthicum of the fourth Maryland district, which is the other part of Baltimore.
Hill's a republican, Linthicum's a democrat. Congressman Carew, a New York democrat, nominated Linthicum for the wet leadership. Congressman Britten, a Chicago republican seconded him.
Republican and Democratic Party labels don't count a nickel's worth in the wet-and-dry fight. Everybody knew that.
But why should the wets stick on tight to a Baltimorean with men like Gallivan and LaGuardia, Linkham and Cellar-yes and women, like Mrs. Kohn-just as wet as they can be?
It must be that Baltimore's a kind of hall-mark of wetness-a guarantee that anybody who is stamped with it is thoroughly saturated clear through.
Be that as it may, Linthicum's right on the job.
Most of congress has gone home, but Linthicum's door in the house office building is wide open, Linthicum's at the desk and his typewriter a tapping the keys.
"The work we wets do between now and next December will tell its story." he says.
"There are a few real wets in congress and a few real drys, but the vast majority, though they're reckoned as drys now, are ready to flop in a minute, and vote wet, if they believe their districts want them to.
"Our business is to convince this huge majority that the country's sick of the soaking wet regime of lawlessness which is what so-called prohibition actually is, and wants to get back to genuine temperance.
"Congress dry-in principle? Why, its ready to change overnight, the minute it senses a change in public sentiment,"
Under the constitution we're entitled now to beer and light wines, Linthicum holds, since the Eighteenth amendment prohibits only intoxicants and beer and light wines are non-intoxicating he says.
So his first proposal; is to modify the Volstead law.
Then his aim is to go after the amendment not by re-amendment, but by means of a constitutional convention, to adopt a new code of fundamental laws, which could be done, he points out, by a simple majority, without the necessity for repeated two-thirds votes.
Linthicum denies that he wants "hard licker" back on the contrary temperance is what he declares he's working for.
Linthicum's program isn't so very new, though the constitutional convention feature of it is comparatively so, but at any rate he 's a new hand at the helm.
The drys haven't picked their new leader yet since Congressman W.D. Upshaw, their old one, was elected last fall to stay home.
Linthicum hopes to put one over on 'em while they're making up their minds.
-Times | Hammond, Indiana | Thursday, March 17, 1927 | Page 9
"Washington, Dec. 13 A rift in the3 ranks of anti-prohibitions in the House became apparent today when New York Tammany representatives, followed by many of the others opposed to the dry laws, made it known that they would not follow Representative La Guardia into his new "militant wet bloc." The Tammany following charged that Mr. La Guardia was merely "playing local politics" and said they would continue to recognize the leadership of J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, for several sessions head of the so-called "beer bloc." Meanwhile Mr. Linthicum was trying to pour oil on the trouble wet element. He addressed a letter to Mr. La Guardia and Representatives Schaefer of Wisconsin and Englebright of California, lieutenants of Mr. La Guardia, making a plea for a solid front. The whole trouble started yesterday when Mr. A. Guardia, Mr. Schaefer and Mr. Englebright issued a call to wet representatives of both parties to meet tomorrow morning for formation of a "militant wet bloc." Mr. Linthicum was not consulted about this meeting and other leading wets today denied any knowledge of the move until they had received invitations to attend. Many of these were in open opposition to the move today. As spokesman for the New York Democrats, Representative Loring M. Black said that none of them would attend the La Guardia meeting. "Mr. La Guardia knows that we New York Democrats have been behind this wet movement from the start." Mr. Black said. "He knows too that we all could go home over the weekend and could not easily attend this meeting tomorrow. Why didn't he call the meeting in a regular way without splitting things up as he has?"
-"Wet Bloc Avoided by Tammany Men.", The New York Times., Dec. 14, 1929, pg.21.
"James Beck Hits At Prohibition. Washington, Jan . 15.--A blistering attack upon prohibition by Rep. James M. Beck, (R.) of Pennsylvania, and selection of Rep. J. Charles Linthicum (D) of Maryland, to lead the anti-prohibition forces, featured the revolt in congress against the volsteadism today.
Beck and Linthicum had been boomed for the chairmanship of the unofficial congressional committee on modification of he Volstead act. Beck withdrew his name, leaving the field clear for Linthicum, who has headed the group the last two years.
-Morning Call, The | Laurel, Mississippi | Thursday, January 16, 1930 | Page 8
"James Beck Hits At Prohibition. Washington, Jan . 15.--A blistering attack upon prohibition by Rep. James M. Beck, (R.) of Pennsylvania, and selection of Rep. J. Charles Linthicum (D) of Maryland, to lead the anti-prohibition forces, featured the revolt in congress against the volsteadism today.
Beck and Linthicum had been boomed for the chairmanship of the unofficial congressional committee on modification of he Volstead act. Beck withdrew his name, leaving the field clear for Linthicum, who has headed the group the last two years.
-Morning Call, The | Laurel, Mississippi | Thursday, January 16, 1930 | Page 8
-February 24,1930, Gettysburg Times, page 3.
"House Wets Choose Beck. Among other developments in the prohibition situation today, the House wet bloc of seventy members selected Representative James M. Beck of Pennsylvania, Solicitor General in the Coolidge Administration, as chairman of the executive committee of its campaign for the modification and repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. The wet group named for Representatives, or "House minute men," to attend sessions of the House, and present at every opportunity arguments in favor of changes in the dry laws. They are….Decision to petition the House Judiciary Committee for a hearing on the bill to legalize 2.75 per cent beer was decided upon by the group. The executive committee of fifteen, headed by Mr. Beck, consists of Representatives….J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland…."
-"Borah and Wheeler Assail Dry Officer.", The New York Times. Jan. 28, 1930, pg. 2.
"House "Wet" Bloc to Hold Own Hearings Washington, Jan. 21 (AP)-The militant and defiant "wet" bloc of the House went ahead today with plans for conducting its own hearings on proposals for the modification of the prohibition laws.
Under the leadership of Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, an executive committee will be established to take charge of the hearings. Prominent people from all sections of the country are to be invited to appear. Linthicum says it will be prepared to make a "sweeping investigation of conditions and recommendations."
The executive committee, like the House "wet" organization itself, will be entirely extra-official so far as congressional procedure is concerned. It will not have the power of subpoena and can administer oaths only with the witnesses' consent. The witnesses themselves will be voluntary and are to be asked to bear their own expenses.
- Moberly Monitor-Index | Moberly, Missouri | Tuesday, January 21, 1930 | Page 4
Statement of the Hon J. Charles Linthicum A Representative in Congress from the State of Maryland
Mr. Linthicum. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, it is the purpose this morning to open the hearings by having several Members of Congress who have introduced resolutions speak upon them before the committee. I shall avail myself of a few minutes at the beginning of the hearing to express my views upon certain of the resolutions. I personally have no resolution before the committee, because there has been a resolution introduced to which I am favorable and which expresses my views.
I want to say in the beginning that I am unalterably opposed to the return of the saloon, just as every witness who has spoken before this committee has been opposed to it. I am in favor of what is known as the Sabath amendment, which is an amendment providing the Government control of the liquor question, and which provides that the sale or issuing of liquor in any State shall be prohibited unless b y legislative enactment of the State it is asked for.
I would suggest an addition to that resolution, and the addition would be that this resolution of Mr. Sabath's should be submitted to the convention, because it is a question which invades the individual rights of the citizens and not the State's rights as is expressed by the legislature. I shall go into that question a little more fully later on. It has been definitely established by various witnesses, drawn from every station of human endeavor, that prohibition enforcement has broken down, and further, that it is a matter of impossibility to enforce it. It has been shown that the use of liquor gradually decreased until the eighteenth amendment was adopted- and, that is the point I want to bring especially to the attention of the committee- it has been expressed by a number of witnesses, but I wish to call direct attention to the curve in the line of consumption of liquor., Prior to the prohibition amendment there was a constant decrease in the4 use of alcoholic liquors, but just as soon after the passage of the Volstead Act as people could adjust themselves to it the manufacture, sale, and consumption of liquor began to increase. It is shown, for instance, that the number of pieces of distilling apparatus has increased from 95,933 for the first full year of prohibition to 247,052 in 1928. The total amount of liquor seized has increased from 5,805,000 gallons in 1921 the first full year of prohibition to 30,429,301 in 1929. Federal arrests of prohibition violators increased from 34,175 in 1921 to 66,195 in 1929 and convictions in Federal courts have increased since 1921 from 17,962 to 50 55,546 in 1920. Showing, as I have said, that from the time almost of the passage of the prohibition act the consumption of liquor has begun to increase, and that the courts have been trying more cases.
the results of these increases in arrests have been that the courts of our country handling prohibition cases have become crowded in their dockets and unable to dispose of the matters before them. In order to dispose of these matters they have established what is known as '"bargain days." Bargain day is that day on which offenders may come before the court, or the district attorney, and agree that if he will only fine them and not imprison them, they will plead guilty, and the consequence is that vast numbers of these cases are disposed of on bargain day; it being definitely understood that the offender will not receive any jail sentence.
Mr. Bachmann. May I ask you there, right on that point, do you know what States or what courts you have reference to, or do you have reference to all?
Mr. Linthicum., To Federal courts.
Mr. Bachmann. All of them?
Mr. Linthicum. Practically all, yes. That is the only way they can dispose of them. The result is-and this is a matter which is commonly known by everybody and definitely known by this committee and the Members of Congress-by reason of prohibition the jails and penitentiaries of our country have become overcrowded. In Atlanta which was built for about 1,200 and some persons, there is something like 3,600, and every one of our penitentiaries now is crowded with offenders either of prohibition or some other offense against the Government or the State, and we are providing for the building of more penitentiaries and are about to appropriate some $7,000,.000 for that purpose; while in England-let me draw the comparison- in England, while we are building penitentiaries for the incarceration of these offenders, in England they are, I am informed by a witness before this committee, about to tear down some of their penitentiaries because they have no further use for them,.
The Chairman. May I say, Mr. Linthicum that the information was regularly sent from London to the New York Times, describing what was going on there, and was published in the columns of the New York Times, about the decrease and the selling of prisons in England.
Mr. Linthicum. I am very glad to have that definite information, Mr. Chairman.
Now, there has been a great deal of discussion before the House about poisoned alcohol, and we have not done anything about it, and the Government continues to poison its alcohol. Many denaturants are used in this industrial alcohol to prevent its use for drinking purposes, poisons. Under No. 44, I believe it is, they are using wood alcohol. The consequence is that we are producing people with blindness, people with cirrhosis of the liver. People are dying from the effect of these poisons. And this denaturant on the part of the Government, which we have been endeavoring to prohibit, certainly as to poisonous denaturants, has caused a great deal of trouble in our country. It has been testified that in the enforcement of prohibition 1,361 American citizens have been shot and killed; occupants of automobiles have been shot at and in some cases killed on the highways; the Coast Guard, one of the most important and historical institutions of our country and of the Government, has been debased, and has been brought largely into disrepute because of its attempt to enforce the prohibition act. The killing on the Black Duck off Boston Harbour, the consumption of liquor by Coast Guardsmen has done a great deal toward this, and it has been brought almost to the point of the tea party in Boston when men go and tear down posters asking men to enter the Coast Guard. They tore down these posters in the city of Boston.
The question therefore, arises: Shall we continue in the present debased condition, or shall we as man to man and citizen to citizen discuss some outcome of the present horrible condition in which we find ourselves?
I am a temperance man, and I mention this fact because just a short time ago I received a clipping from a paper. It consisted of the pictures of three people, myself on the left, my friend Mr. Crampton in the center, and Senator John J. Blaine on the right. It said over my picture: "Is he an American? " Over Mr. Cramton's picture, to the best of my recollection: " A type that knows no joy," And on the right, I forget just what that did say. For that reason, I bring out the fact that I am an American citizen, that my people came to this country in1658, that we have always stood for the Constitution, have been loyal to the Government, and we propose to stick to the Constitution, even including the eighteenth amendment, so long as it shall continue in the Constitution, but we reserve the right to fight for the elimination of the eighteenth amendment from the Constitution by another amendment or otherwise, just as the proponents of prohibition had a right to fight for its insertion in the Constitution. I personally think it is wrongfully in there, and I have always fought against it and voted against it.
Much has been said about prosperity, and I am told that the drys proposed to bring that question before you, though they have been very silent in what they are going to say, and who they intend to produce; nevertheless, it has been one of their great slogans "Prosperity." No one is in a position to say whether the prosperity of the country has been due to prohibition or whether it is due largely to the result of the war and th decrease of production during the time of the war, and then the increased production and the increase of farm products after the war. Then you must also, in considering this question of the money you find in the savings banks that everybody is getting practically-except Congressmen-everybody is getting practically twice what they did before the war. The laboring man who got $1.50 a day before the war is now getting $3 and $3.50 a day, and to that is largely due the increases in deposits in savings banks.
I want to draw the distinction also between the question of simply prohibition and saloons. I believe, and I think everybody believes, that the saloon has always been a detriment to this country; that it has hindered prosperity and should long before have been eliminated. So that it is my position that if this prosperity is due to the liquor question it would have been ever greater had the Government eliminated the saloon and regulated the liquor traffic. We would then be receiving a very handsome revenue from the liquor traffic, which now is going to the underworld. We know that revenues which we would have received, or savings which we could have made, would be as follows:
Federal enforcement costs the Nation, after deducting $5,500,000 in fines, $36,000,000 a year; loss in Federal revenues, estimated, s high as $850,000,000; los in State, city and county revenues, $50,000,000. Total $936,000,000, which the Government is losing, and the Government and the States and the cities are losing.
I want to say for the information of the committee, and as suggesting how wise the State of Michigan is, an editorial which I read from the Baltimore Sun- (Mr. Linthicum went on to describe how the state of Michigan taxed malt and wort that is the ingredients used to make beer and made a substantial sum of money while at the same time was able to estimate a huge quantity of illegal beer that was most likely being produced from it.)
.....Mr. Linthicum, …Now in reference to the Sabath resolution, I say I would add to that resolution that it shall be submitted to conventions of the States, and I say that for two reasons. The resolution gives to the Government the power to regulate, and yet prohibits liquor in every State where it is not definitely asked for by legislative enactment. While this does not restore to the States the right to control the liquor traffic, it does actually give them the right to eliminate it entirely if they so desire. I am not so sure that the States have any inherent right to control the liquor traffic, and I am constrained to believe what Senator Bruice said, that it might just as well have had the right bestowed upon it under the Constitution as the control of bankruptcy and interstate commerce in the beginning, and that it would not be out of the way, nor I might say, encroaching upon the reserved powers of the States, to give the Government the right to control the liquor traffic.
Mr. Sumners. Right there, Mr. Linthicum, without interrupting you now, I want to refer to that later.
Mr. Linthicum. Yes, certainly. I think the eighteenth amendment should be repealed with an amendment as suggested by the Sabath amendment and submitted to conventions of the States. And another reason I wish to give for the submission of this to conventions of the States, as I said first, it is because the conventions would represent the people, would leave the sole question of repeal of the eighteenth amendment and the enactment of an amendment in place thereof, to the vote of the people and the elimination of all other questions in the campaign. Now there is another reason. When the constitution was adopted the country was pretty evenly divided and pretty well represented by its legislatures as to the apportionment to the counties and to the cities, but I want to take my city for example and then I shall quote others.
In my State of Maryland we have a general assembly consisting of 29 members of the State senate, of which 6 are from the city of Baltimore; and the house of delegates of 147 members, of which 36 are from the city of Baltimore. Baltimore City has a population of 940,000 people. The State as a whole has a population of 1,000,000 people. So that the city, with a population of 940,000 people, has one-sixth of the senate and one fourth of the house of delegates. So that the people of Baltimore are not proportionately represented when it comes to the adoption of an amendment by a legislative body. If it were by convention then all the people would have a say as to the adoption of the amendment, and each individual would have a right to vote upon that direct question. For that reason, as an additional reason, I think it should be submitted to the convention.
(discussion followed clarifying Mr. Linthicum's views on the convention)
-Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives, Seventy First Congress Second Session H.J. Res. 11,38,99,114,219,and 246.,Serial 5, February 12,13,19,20,26,27, March 4,1930, Part 1, United States Government Printing office, Washington , 1930. p. 397
"The meeting late today was presided over by Representative J. Charles Linthicum, one of the anti-dry leaders in the House, who said that his group planned to call "a great many witnesses in connection with the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment."
-"House Body is Cold to Juryless Trial, Subcommittee Defers Action on Wickersham Plan Until Dry Hearing Ends (hearing on enforcement)", -The New York Times., Feb. 12,1930, pg. 3.
"Washington, March 4.-The attack of the anti-prohibitionists on the Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead act was completed in the seventh day of presenting evidence before the House Judiciary Committee today with a final assault on the constitutionality of the whole prohibition legal structure by Breckenridge Long, former Assistant Secretary of State; a denunciation of the effects of prohibition by for women active in public life, one a mother of four sons, and a summation of the wet case by Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, leader of the House wet bloc.
…."Representative Linthicum in his summation of the testimony of the drys at the beginning of the day's session suggested a manner in which States may make revenue out of liquor, despite prohibition. Michigan he said, recently instituted a tax on malt and other brewing materials from which it has collected $570,184 so far, an indicated revenue of $1,200,000 annually.
"The tax alone would indicate that 22.870,000 gallons of illicit beverages had been made or five gallons for each State resident," Mr. Linthicum added. Figures which he presented indicated that stills in use had increased from 99,533 in 1919 to 247,052 in 1929. He charged that 30,000,000 gallons of liquor were seized last year. "The prohibition cases are increasing, he added. "the prisons are crowded and $7,000,000 has been asked for new ones. The government continues to poison alcohol and the Coast Guard is in disrepute" Reiterating the opposition of all witnesses to the return of the saloon, Mr. Linthicum spoke in favor of the Swedish system, under which distribution of beverages would be placed int the hands of a responsible, limited corporation. "We thank the Anti-Saloon League for eliminating the saloon. Now let them help us eradicate te speakeasy," he added.
-"Four Women Assail Effect of Dry Law, End Wets' Hearing"., The New York Times., March 5, 1930.
"Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, leader of the wet bloc in the House, arrived here today to lay plans for the program in Congress. It was hardly to be expected, he said, that anything definite toward repeal or modification could be accomplished until the Seventy-third Congress, three years hence, but the program could be started by the handful of wets now in the House, carried further by the increased number issued for the Seventy-second Congress by the recent elections and "put over" by the majority that they hope to elect in "the battle of '32" Mr. Linthicum's plan is to form all the present wets in the House into a compact organization.
-"Dry Straddle Fatal, Fess Again Warns." The New York Times., November 13, 1930.
Zeus may well have been thinking of something else when Pallas Athene, mature and fully armed, was born from his ponderous brow. Certainly when Chairman Simeon Davison Fess of the Republican National Committee thought and said: "The party will remain Dry or it will be split" (TIME, Nov. 17) he was not contemplating the creation of a mature, warlike body of Wet Republicans which almost simultaneously appeared. Perhaps instead Mr. Fess was thinking in terms of the Methodist Board of Temperance, Prohibition & Public Morals statement fortnight ago: "Any catering to the Wets, any toleration of a suggestion of modification, would light fires of bitter resentment in the hearts of the men and women who trooped to the polls ... in 1928."
Onetime Senator James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. of New York was the plume in the Wet Athene's helmet last week. He cried: "Senator Fess . . . cannot see what is going on in this country. Tears dim his sight. . . . Does the Senator think we can carry Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois and a half-dozen other States whose people spoke last week on this question . . . [and] hope to cajole repeal-Republicans, millions of good men & women, into an attitude of complacency concerning the thing they regard as vital?"
President Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia University, for years the man who has written Wet planks for the Republican platform and for years seen them thrown out, declared: "Senator Fess . . . adds that 'if the Republican party stands for repeal, it might as well say good-day.' . . . My reply is that if the Republican party does not stand for repeal it might as well say goodnight. . . . The elections of November 1930 are the handwriting on the wall."
Representatives Fred Albert Britten of Illinois and Leonidas Carstarphen Dyer of Missouri also cried out against Mr. Fess's leadership. The Wet Republican press re acted even more sharply, and certain arch-Republican editors captioned editorials FESS OUGHT TO GO and THE BLIND SENATOR FROM OHIO. Hearst papers quoted an unnamed Republican leader as saying: "If this split continues there will be a Nationalist party in 1932."
Fuss-budgety Senator Fess seemed embarrassed. After taking time to discuss and think over his statement, he last week told news gatherers that he had made it as an individual, not as party spokesman. He said also that his mind was open to modification recommendations from the Wickersham Commission. But he did not retract his theory that the party must not weasel on Prohibition, that it must be Dry.
Wet Bloc. Democratic Representative John Charles Linthicum of Maryland, long leader of the small group of avowed Wets in the House, saw his opportunity in the split which Chairman Fess, in trying to avert, had created. Rushing to Washington, Congressman Linthicum sent invitations to all 71st House members to attend a Wet Bloc organization meeting early in December. Of Chairman Fess's statement he said: "It means a Democratic victory beyond a doubt." Mr. Linthicum put Repeal above party, insisting: "Regardless of party platforms, the fight to elect Wet members . . . will continue. . . . We have just begun to fight." Sage, he did not envisage Repeal as possible before the 73d Congress, but declared "constructive Wet activity'' might achieve much in the 72nd Congress, "when we will have at least 140 repealist votes to say nothing of the men . . . who are now wavering. . . . We can safely tell our people that light wines & beer are not far in the offing . . . especially if Mr. Hoover's commission indicates that the present form of Prohibition is unsuccessful.'' To his support came Republican Congressman James Montgomery Beck of Pennsylvania, declaring: "The 72nd Congress, which in my opinion will be more closely divided on the Wet & Dry issue than the election returns would indicate . . . [should] refuse to waste public moneys by attempting to enforce the unenforceable."
The Commission. With rumors rampant that it would recommend light wines & beer, that it would advise calling a Constitutional convention for considering Repeal, and above all that it was hastening its deliberations so as to present a report to the opening session of Congress on Dec. 1, the Wickersham Commission, object of concern to both Chairman Fess and Leader Linthicum. last week surprised Prohibition Director Amos Walter Wright Woodcock by summoning him. After hearing what he had to say, the Commission abruptly adjourned for ten days. This unexpected action forthwith was explained as an Administration measure to prevent Prohibition debate in the next Congressional session before the necessary supply-bills are passed. Later, it became known that the commissioners had rejected unanimously all proposals for both Repeal and 4% beer. The Women's Christian Temperance Union, convened at Houston, Tex., shouted "Praise God!"
-"The G.O.P. Divides", November .24, 1930, Time., http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,740751-2,00.html
"The "wet bloc" in the House met today and voted to change its name from the Unofficial Committee on Modification of the Volstead Act to the Unofficial Committee of the House of Representatives Opposed to National Prohibition. Representative J. Charles Linthicum, the leader, presided and it was matter of considerable comment that among those present were ten members of the House heretofor not identified with the organization…"
-"House Wet Bloc Puts 10 More on its Rolls.", The New York Times., Dec. 17, 1930.
"I have always taken the position that ratification by Legislature was not the proper way to ratify the Eighteenth Amendment," said Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, leader of the House "wet bloc."
-"Mitchell Hastens Appeal on New Jersey Wet Ruling; Dry Raids will Continue.," The New York Times., Dec. 18,1930.
Election of Roosevelt
On November 8, Franklin Roosevelt and the Democratic party scored one of the great electoral triumphs of American political history. Roosevelt polled nearly twenty-three million votes to his opponent's less than sixteen million, and carried forty-two states to Hoover's six. In the Congress, which had been evenly divided, Democrats gained a310 tolI7 House majority and a 60 to 35 Senate advantage. Four years earlier, Hoover had received S8.2 percent of the ballots; now he got just 39.6 percent. Undoubtedly the economic depression bore principal responsibility for the rejection of Hoover, but prohibition played a part as well. With both parties offering vague and cautious economic plans, prohibition appeared to be one issue in 1932 on which party positions were clearly distinguishable." Its importance in the election became evident in various ways.
The election increased wet strength in Congress even more dramatically than it shifted party power. Despite the Democratic landslide, a few repeal espousing Republicans, like James Wadsworth of New York and Everett Dirksen of Illinois, won their first election to the House of Representatives. Wadsworth, who defeated both a Democrat and an independent dry candidate, clearly profited from changing attitudes toward prohibition in his conservative, western-New York district since his defeat for the Senate six years earlier in a similar three-sided contest. The New York Times calculated that the Seventy-third Congress would have 343 wet Representatives and 61 wet Senators." Wet support in the House had previously reached a peak of 187 votes on the Beck-Linthicum resolution, and the Senate had always been drier. Of the more than one hundred Congressmen turned out in 1932, some -such as Wesley L. Jones of Washington, Reed Smoot of Utah, and James E. Watson of Indiana-were among the most influential dry Senators. Quite a few surviving incumbents had reversed earlier positions and come out for repeal during the campaign.
Whatever part advocacy of repeal actually contributed to the Democratic landslide, politicians and other contemporary observers gave it major credit for the outcome. They thought the prohibition issue had determined many votes. This belief proved crucial to the process of abolishing the Eighteenth Amendment. The election of 1932 was widely interpreted as a voter directive for repeal. Those involved in antiprohibition agitation quickly labeled it so. Jouett Shouse, for the AAPA, declared the mandate "overwhelming."" The WONPR assessed the returns and proclaimed, "The citizens of the United States through the instrument of the ballot made it quite clear and definite on November 8th that they do not want National Prohibition."" Representative James Beck called the election "a clear mandate to Congress to end, as soon as possible, the tragic folly of Federal prohibition."" Soon signs appeared that many of Beck's colleagues in the House concurred.
By Mr. Linthicum: Joint resolution (J. j. Res. 208) proposing an amendment to the eighteenth amendment of the Constitution; to the Committee on the Judiciary
By Mr. Beck: Joint resolution (H.J. Res. 209) proposing an amendment to the eighteenth amendment of the Constitution; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
By Mr. Sabath: Joint resolution (H.J. Res. 210) proposing an amendment to the eighteenth amendment of the Constitution; to the Committee on the Judiciary.
-January 15, 1932, The Journal of the House of Representatives., p.247
"Cracked Ice". By George H. Manning. Washington-For the fist time since enactment of the Volstead act, members of the House of Representatives today will have opportunity to vote definitely on the prohibition question.
This opportunity will come when Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Baltimore, chairman of the unofficial Democratic wet bloc of the House moves to discharge the House Judiciary Committee from further consideration of the resolution introduced jointly by himself and Representative James M. Beck of Philadelphia, head of the wet Republicans in the House,, to give the states eventually the right to determine whether they shall have prohibition.
From communications reaching offices of members from all states, it is evident there is a general misunderstanding as to the significance of today's vote. In fact, there is some misunderstanding even among members of the House.
The general impression seems to be that the Linthicum-Beck resolution provides for a direct referendum by the people on the prohibition question. This is not true.
What the resolution does is to amend the Constitution by continuing in effect the present wording of the Eighteenth Amendment but to add to that wording a proviso stating that the prohibition shall not be construed as abridging or denying the right of any state to authorize and regulate the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors wholly within the borders of the state.
The resolution further provides that the power granted the states to control the liquor traffic within their own borders shall not be construed to empower Congress to authorize the shipment, transportation or transportation into any state when this has been prohibited by the state.
Stated simply the Linthicum-Beck resolution provides for a return to state option, and continues the Eighteenth Amendment in effect in those states which vote dry. On the other hand, it would permit states which wanted to control the manufacture and sale of liquor within their own borders to do so without hindrance.
The feature of the bill which has equated the impression that it is a referendum measure is the section which provides the amendment to the Eighteenth Amendment must be ratified by constitutional conventions-not by the legislatures-called especially for that purpose. It is true, however, that this would, in a sense, be a referendum, for it would be necessary for the people of each state to choose delegates to the convention and this would be done by ballot.
While the vote today will not be on the resolution itself, it is generally conceded that a vote for the motion will classify a member as a wet, while a vote against will definitely classify him as a fry.
- Middletown Times Herald | Middletown, New York | Monday, March 14, 1932 | Page 7
Drys Win Prohibition Test in Congress 227 to 187. Motion Lost to Bring Resolution Before the House. Anti-Prohibitionists Muster Unexpected Strength in Fist Test Vote in 12 years…..By Paul Mallon. Washington, March 14.-Anti-prohibitonists today lost their motion to bring the Beck-Linthicum resolution before the House but mustered the unexpected strength of 187 votes in the first clear cut test on prohibition in 12 years.
The House voted 227 to 187 against discharging the judiciary Committee from consideration of te resolution. The resolution called for submission to the states of an amendment to the constitution in effect returning to the states the control of the liquor traffic. Discharge of the committee would have brought the resolution directly before the House.
The vote took place to an accompaniment of fiery speeches and reminders that this "is the ides of March--stand up and be counted."
Dry orators, in such efforts as they made to speak, met with jeers and interruptions from a militant wet minority.
Galleries were crowded with men and women sitting in the aisles.
Defeat had been expected by the anti-Prohibitionists. Only the most optimistic wet leaders thought the minority would be able to gather such strength as it did. It represented the largest wet strength in the House since 1917 when the 18th amendment was submitted.
The anti-prohibitionists were aided materially by a number of representatives listed as dry who felt that the Beck-Linthicum repeal resolution should be brought before the House for a direct vote. The House never before has come so close to voting directly upon a repeal proposition.
Prior to the roll-call estimates of the wet possibilities ran all the way from 160 to 130 votes. The leaders generally expected not more than 175. The total comes within three votes of the outside maximum claim of the anti-prohibitionists.
The importance of the vote was obvious on the floor and in the gallery. It was preceded by brief but warm debate in which only one of the drys, Rep., Moore, Repn., O., participated.
Practically every seat on the floor was taken for the first time in many days. A number of Congressmen were so anxious over the outcome that they kept their own roll-calls at their places.
The crowd in the gallery was so boisterous that Speaker Garner was unable to maintain control over it at times.
The roll-call was interrupted by applause when four women members voted with the anti-prohibitionists. They were Mrs. Florence P. Kahn, Repn., Calif, Mrs. Ruth Prat, Repa., N.Y. Mrs. Mary T. Norton, Dem. N.J., and Mrs. Edith Nourse Rogers, Repn., Mass.
Speaker Garner did not vote. His name was not called, in accordance with the custom of the house. The rule provides that a Speaker may cast his vote if he desires but he generally is not expected to vote.
After preliminary details were dispensed with the Speaker gave 20 minutes to the opposing sides for debate in preparation for the vote on the anti-prohibitionists motion to discharge the House Judiciary Committee of further consideration of the Beck-Linthicum home rule amendment, the specific question on which the hours was to pass.
The house was unusually silent, as if it were witnessing a great event, when Representative J. Charles Linthicum, Dem., Maryland took the floor.
"The crucial time in the long fight for the liberty and liberation of the American people has arrived," he said, "not in 12 years, the life of the amendment, have we had an opportunity to vote directly upon it.
"Scripture tells us he who is not with us is against us, so I tell you that he who votes against the discharge of the committee today is not willing to submit he question to the people.
"The discharge of the Judiciary Committee means the consideration of this subject. It does not mean that you must vote for the resolution to amend the 18th amendment, but it does mean that you will give the Congress a chance to discuss this very vital issue."
He was frequently interrupted by applause from the smiling wet sector of the House. Drys stared at him, their faces giving no indication of their feelings. Far at the left in members gallery Rev. E. C. Dinwiddie, dry crusader, crossed his legs and looked unconcerned.
Women were sitting in the gallery aisles and the crowd was so nervous that Speaker Garner had difficulty in keeping order.
The wet side of the case was addressed also by Rep. O'Connor, Dem., N.Y. one of the original anti-prohibitionists of the house.
Rep. Bachman, Repn. , W. Va., asked Linthicum if a vote for his resolution meant a vote for return of the open saloon.
"If I believed that the open saloon would come back I would not support this resolution," Linthicum replied.
Jeers and cheers punctuated the proceedings.
The drys had their turn for a demonstration when Re. Ellis Moore, Repn., Ohio boyish appearance, was introduced. They rose, applauded and yelled.
"The gentleman from Maryland has confessed his reason is false because he would accept an amendment to prevent return of the saloon." Moore said. "It means return of the saloon."
Loud cries of "no," "no" interrupted him. Moore was prevented from continuing for a moment.
"Furthermore," he said when quiet was restored, "It would place prohibition in politics.
Anti-prohibitions greeted this with laughter and again prevented Moore from going on. A loud yell came from the gallery during this demonstration.
Moore scowled at his opponents he continued determinedly with his speech.
No other dry offered to take the floor, so the anti-prohibitionists continued with brief addresses.
The House was anxious for the vote. As each "four-minute" speaker concluded, there was a swelling cry:
-Daily News | Huntingdon, Pennsylvania | Monday, March 14, 1932 | Page 6
-House Journal., March 14, 1932, p. 545-6 (Library of Congress)
"Last, but of more immediate interest to the people than any others, are the resolutions relating to the Eighteenth Amendment., During the first session of the Seventieth Congress, only three resolutions proposed the repeal of the National Prohibition Amendment and only six called for modification. In the first session of the Seventy-second however, eighteen resolutions demanded outright repeal and sixty-three asked for modification. A brief description of the most important modifications suggested might help to clarify thinking upon this all-absorbing topic. House Joint Resolution No. 208 introduced by Representative J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland, would permit Congress to regulate or prohibit the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquor, the importation thereof into, and the exportation thereof from the United States and all territories, for beverage purposes. This power is given on the condition that it shall not be construed or applied to abridge or deny the right of any state to authorize and regulate the manufacture, sale, transportation, and use of such intoxicating liquors wholly within its borders. Furthermore, the power to regulate shall not be construed to empower Congress to authorize the shipment, transportation, or importation of intoxicating liquor into any state where its sale, transportation, or use has been prohibited by the laws of that state. This amendment was debated in the House of Representatives and a vote upon a motion to discharge the committee failed to carry. The same identical resolution was introduced thirty times and by different Representatives. "
-"Legislation-Proposed Amendments to the Constitution Introduced during the First Session of the Seventy-Second Congress.", Paul H. Giddens, =The George Washington Law Review., p.357. First Session= December 7, 1931 - July 16, 1932.
March 14, 1932
On March 14, 1932, the
House voted on the question of bringing out from the
-Straw Votes: A Study of Political Prediction - Page 156 by Claude Everett Robinson, Columbia University Council for Research in the Social Sciences - Elections - 1932 - 203 pages
Thursday, March 17, 1932-
and other large cities, officers of the Clinic. Led Wets In House Test Vote b Democrats To Hold Meeting On Saturday It was a dry victory, but the unexpected strength which the wets showed in the vote to take up the Beck-LINTHICUM resolution in the house caused Representatives CHARLES LINTHICUM (left) of Maryland and Representative James M. Beck (right) of Pennsylvania to congratulate each other. They're leaders of the anti- PROHIBITION forces in congress and authors of the resolution to re- submit the eighteenth amendment to the people. Al...
In March 1932 House wets mustered enough strength to force the first roll call ever on repeal. (of prohibition). The vote came on a petition to discharge from committee a resolution similar to Raskob's home-rule amendment offered by Representatives James Beck and J. Charles Linthicum of Maryland. Beck had drafted the resolution in consultation with AAPA leaders. Although the discharge vote failed 227 to 187 it achieved the wet objective of putting every House member's prohibition position on record just prior to their reelection campaigns. Furthermore, it vividly demonstrated that repeal sentiment in the House was nearing a majority.
-The Gospel of Barbecue: Poems , David E. Kyvig, Fanonne Jeffers, Honorée Fanonne JeffersKent State University Press, 2000 ISBN 0873386728, 978087338672
Monday, Mar. 21, 1932
By HP-Time. com Monday,
Mar. 21, 1932
Before packed galleries the House roll was being called on the first clear-cut issue of the 18th Amendment since its original passage Dec. 18, 1917 by a vote of 282-to-128. A parliamentary petition by 145 Wets had forced this question: Shall the House take up a resolution by Pennsylvania's Beck and Maryland's Linthicum to amend the Constitution for the return of liquor control to the States? The Wets, with no hope of actual victory, purposed by this ballot to put every House member on record on Prohibition, weed out the weaslers for the coming campaign, exhibit the growing Wet strength. Before the counting began, Drys claimed the Wet vote would not exceed 160. Wets predicted they would get at least 180. Final result: 227 Drys voting No; 187 Wets voting Aye.
Though the Drys, as was expected, defeated the Beck-Linthicum resolution, the Wets were jubilant at making a better showing than they anticipated. They had planted a large and solid milestone from which to measure their future progress.
"The spokesman for the House wets, the men who are planning the campaign and will bear the brunt of its direction once it gets under way, are James M. Beck of Pennsylvania, Fred A Britten of Illinois, Richard s. Aldrich of Rhode Island, Florence P. Kahn of California, Hamilton Fish Jr. and Fioello H. La Guardia of New York and Leonidas C. Dyer of Missouri, all Republicans, and Parker Corning, John J. O'Connor and Thomas H. Cullen of New York, J Charles Linthicum of Maryland, Mrs. Mary T. Norton of New Jersey and James T. Igoe of Illinois all Democrats. Mr. Beck has been chose leader of a Republican wet bloc numbering sixty-four members of the House which promises to cooperate with the bipartisan group above, which is headed by Mr. Linthicum."
"I said on Monday that the fight against national prohibition is nearing the end. I did not say this because the wish is father to the thought, but after a very close scrutiny of what took place. When it is realized that the 187 members who voted for the discharge of the Judiciary Committee on House Joint Resolution 208 represents a constituency of 52,000,000 people, it can readily be seen that we are nearing half the population of the Union. A change of less than 8 per cent of the votes, or 31, would give the wets a majority. Maryland cast five of its six votes for discharge; Pennsylvania 18 of its 36; Rhode Island all of its 3; Massachusetts 13 of its 16; Connecticut all of its 5; New Jersey, all of its 12 and New York 32 of its 43.
That represents the abounding sentiment of the East, and there is not much doubt that in the next Congress the East will be practically solid against national prohibition.
A Spread Toward the West. Sentiment against national prohibition was for some time confined to the urban sections of the East, but in the test on Monday, Ohio cast13 votes against it. Illinois 16, Michigan 9, Wisconsin 9 and California 11, showing that the trend of public opinion in the urban sections of the Middle West and on the Coast is rapidly veering against the amendment.
The Anti-Saloon League walls are crumbling; the clarion call for liberty and liberation will soon demolish this structure. There is little doubt that many of the districts which voted dry on Monday will be carried by wets and vote wet in the next Congress.
Only one more election is necessary for the defeat of national prohibition. I say this not only because of reports from the dry districts, but because the reapportionment act which will be in force before the next Congress will give the urban population a large increase in representation. I figure that this increase will be largely wet- some 54 and it is most likely that the wets will have a two-thirds vote in the House of the Seventy-third Congress; they will certainly have more than a majority.
Outlawing the Saloon. The drys made a great fight. They eliminated the saloons, which is a blessing to our country, but they went too far when they placed a legislative amendment in the Constitution. Had that merely excluded the saloon and empowered Congress to regulate the liquor traffic, they would have fared better. You can not enforce a law which is against public sentiment.
There is clear evidence of this when you note that 700,000 cases have been tried in our courts and that 500,000 people have been convicted. Imagine a law which places a stigma on 500,000 citizens! The old jails have been overcrowded and vast sums have been appropriated for the construction of new ones, though persons who favored the prohibition amendment told us that if it were adopted we should have little use for prisons. They said there would be slight crime; that the almshouses would be practically closed, and that the country would be morally better off.
Cost of Enforcement. In every Congress the appropriations for the enforcement of this non-enforceable amendment and the Volstead act have increased until they have now cost our people $378,000,000. More than $231,000,000 worth of goods has been confiscated and more than $10,000,000 has been lost in what would have been revenue. Had we this lost revenue at this time there would be no deficiency in the Treasury Department but an abundant surplus. There would be no need for a sales tax or the increase of the income tax.
I have enough faith in the American people to know that they will not continue this experiment which has been so destructive to so many of our people, so drastic in its enforcement and so destructive to the life, liberty and morality of our country.
I am convinced that the conventions, both Democratic and Republican, which meet in Chicago, will find prohibition a most important topic, and I believe both parties will deal with it in their respective platforms. The question must be settled rightly and it cannot be rightly settled until it is submitted to the direct vote of the people. There is no better proposition to submit to the people than that provided for in this resolution. It offers the best way and perhaps the only constitutional way in which we can let the people decide.
-"For the Wets", By J. Charles Linthicum, Representative from Maryland, The New York Times, March 20, 1932, pg XXI
"Representatives J. Charles Linthicum and Vincent Palmisano and former Representative John Philip Hill favor a beer parade in Baltimore such as Mayor Walker plans for New York. Walter H . Buck president of the Baltimore Association Against the Prohibition Amendment; Edgar Allan Poe Jr., head of the Crusaders here, and other civic and political leaders sowed interest in the idea of a national demonstration.
Mr. Buck explained that his association was interested in repeal of the prohibition amendment rather than modification, and expressed regret that the Baltimore Association of Commerce recently refused to follow the lead of similar bodies in Chicago and New York,, which passed resolutions calling on Congress to pass a bill making beer available for tax revenue.
Mr. Poe said he felt sure that the members of the Crusaders would be willing to march here in a beer parade. But in the absence of official advice on the matter from the Crusaders' New York headquarters he was unwilling to commit himself.
-"Linthicum for Parade.", The New York Times., April 17, 1932, pg.2.
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Chairman House Foreign Affairs Committee
50 Church St., New York City:
(source see above)
"Linthicum supports education aid to China,"U.S.-China Educational Exchange: State, Society, and Intercultural Relations, 1905-1950,Hongshan Li, Rutgers University Press, 2008
Japan's Cultural Policy Toward China, 1918-1931: A Comparative Perspective,See Heng Teow, Harvard University Asia Center, 1999.
Representative Linthicum, a Democrat from Maryland, then very ably brought out the high character of our consular service, stating that "probably no other government in the world is securing more valuable services from its consular employees than those services which are being rendered our government by the men in its service." He pointed out, however, among the reforms which would still further improve the consular service the elimination of the apportionment provision in making appointments. Mr. Linthicum's remarks were in part as follows : "Many reforms in our diplomatic and consular service have been brought about recently. We need the very best men we can secure in the foreign service of this country. We require men of genuine talent and ability, and when we have secured such men, and they have satisfactorily demonstrated their worth, they ought to be rewarded and spurred on to even more valuable efforts. These places ought to be open to all classes of our people possessing the necessary training and qualifications. Under the present arrangement relating to apportionment among the states and the restrictions with which these places are surrounded, through no fault of the officers of our state department, these appointments do not always go to those possessing the best qualifications for them." Representative Campbell, a Republican from Kansas, then addressed the House and asked Mr. Linthicum how foreign nations "with a consistent foreign policy that have foreign offices with men trained in the foreign service, who carry out the policy of their country, could have respect for a great nation that gives as a reward to political campaigners, or those who have given contributions, the office of ambassador or minister to the great countries of the world, and too often without any regard whatever as to their fitness for work in statecraft and diplomacy, as we have just been shown by the case of Santo Domingo?" In reply Mr. Campbell was asked what remedy he proposed. Mr. Campbell then offered the following plan: "Simple enough. I would make all officers below the secretary of state continuing officers. I would not change the assistant secretary of state, I would not change the counselor for the state department, and I would have officers who are familiar with the precedents and with international law and usage, and also familiar with the details of the office and able to carry out a consecutive foreign policy." It was then pointed out by Mr. Barkley, Democratic Representative from Kentucky, that "regardless of parties and administrations in the past, with very few exceptions, and small exceptions, too, our representatives abroad have
-Good Government, National Civil Service League, National Civil Service League., 1914
Item notes: v.31-32 1914-1915
"Congressman J. Charles Linthicum, a member of the House Naval Affairs Committee, visited the pier at 6 o'clock tonight accompanied by his brother, J. Hampton Linthicum. They called on Captain Hinsch of the Neckar, and despite the orders that had been issued that no one was to go aboard the vessel after sundown Tuesday, the order was placed aside and the party was taken on board the interned North German Lloyd liner. (U boat involved was the Deutschland.)
-"Crew Fear U-Boat's Fate.", New York Times. July 20, 1916, pg. 1.
Mr. LINTHICUM. The Germans erected monuments during
the war for their
adequately safeguarded from the standpoint of design, from the
Mr. LINTHICUM. I had in mind that if the National
Government erected one
… Mr. LINTHICUM. In my statement I had in mind the
splendid work being done
memorial to our soldiers, and I am very sure that
President Harding will say
Representative Linthicum Back From South America
Marylander Sent to Select Sites for Buildings To House U.S. Embassies and Consular and Commerce Department Offices.
New York, Jan. 7 (Special)- Representative J. Charles Linthicum, Maryland, arrived in New York this morning following a tour of South America.
He was accompanied by Mrs. Linthicum.
He is returning to Washington to assume his duties in Congress.
Sought Building Sites
Mr. Linthicum made the trip for the Foreign Service Building Commission, which is composed of Secretaries Kellogg, Mellon and Whiting, Senators Borah and Swanson and Representatives Linthicum and Porter.
The purpose of this trip was to select the sites in South American countries in which the United States Government will erect buildings to house embassies, legations, consular and Department of Commerce offices.
Thirty-Three Projects under Way
Representative Linthicum said there were thirty-three such projects by the United States Government underway all over the world.
The vessel on which Mr.. Linthicum returned came from Peru and Chile by way of the Panama Canal and Havana. Capt. W. C. Benaut, her commander, said the receptions accorded President-elect Hoover in South America exceeded in popular enthusiasm anything he had ever witnessed before in those countries.
-The Baltimore Sun, Jan. 8, 1929.
1931 The Moses-Linthicum Act on the Foreign Service
"An Act for the Grading and
Classification of Clerks in the Foreign Service . .
"To rectify deficiencies in the Rogers Act, on February 23, 1931, Congress enacted the Moses-Linthicum Act. Constituting a revised, comprehensive, organic act for the Foreign Service, although it reiterated much of the Rogers Act, it ranked Foreign Service officers in eight regular classes, plus unclassified officers, increased their salaries ranging from $3,500 to $10,000 annually, and provided for annual leaves, sick leaves of absence, and other details concerned with commissioning and retirement arrangements.
Innovative in two major respects, it reorganized the Foreign Service Personnel Board and modified arrangements respecting the overseas clerical staff. It formulated elaborate regulations to govern the Personnel Board's composition, authority, and functions concerning matters of compiling and appraising efficiency reports of officers and maintaining confidentiality of their correspondence and records (except for the President, the Secretary of State, and Board members). It supplemented these matters with specifications pertaining to automatic within grade salary increases, special allowances, and improvements in the retirement program. It also revised and regularized the system of diplomatic clerks, organizing them in two categories consisting of senior clerks arranged in five classes and junior clerks in three classes, with annual salaries ranging from $2,750 to $4,000, and it dealt with their appointment, advancement, and special living expenses.
The Moses-Linthicum Act also updated and improved the organization and management of the Foreign Service. Assessing this revision in 1934 Assistant Secretary Wilbur Carr, who played a major role in devising the substance of the acts of 1924 and 1931 and who has been called the "Father of the Foreign Service." observed that "the Foreign Service had finally attained the goal for which Presidents, Secretaries of State, and the businessmen of the country had striven for years"
-U.S. Department of State: A Reference History, Elmer Plischke. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999
1932 World Court
Introduced Resolution May 2, 1932. To enable the United States to pay a portion of the expenses of the Permanent Court of International Justice for 1932. Sent to House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs. Hearings were held on May 6, 13,20 and 24 of 1932. The concept put forth by Linthicum was that by funding the court the United States could avoid funding other arbitrations which it had been funding such as in Sweden, Panama, Cuba, Egypt, Guatemala, Spain and Mexico. While saving money fair and just settlements could be made more efficient. June 15, 1932 the Resolution reached the floor of the house.
-Source:"The Linthicum Resolution on the World Court",,MO Hudson - American Journal of International Law, 1932
Oleomargarine And Creameries
Oleomargarine: Hearing Before the Committee on Rules, House of Representatives, Seventieth Congress, First Session, on H. R. 10958 ...
By Committee on Rules, United States Congress. House. Committee on Rules, United States, Congress, House Published by U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1928 Original from the Library of Congress
I am in receipt of another letter from Mr. J. Chas. Linthicum, who requested that I interest our organization in the better conditions of dairy products, and his resolution received the proper investigation, and is most startling in its revelations. The investigation was made by the chiefs of the various departments of the Department of Agriculture, which includes some eminent scientists, and states that thousands of children under sixteen years contract bovine tuberculosis through eating butter and drinking . milk contaminated with bovine tubercular bacilli, and that 6,000 children under five years die every year of bovine tuberculosis. Much more is contained in this letter that 1 have not room to give, but Mr. Linthicum wishes all our members who agree with him that the above conditions should be changed, and for the enactment of a national inspection law to protect the children, to write to your congressman in care of the House of Representatives, Washington, D. C., expressing your views and asking him to favor this resolution for the above law.
-The Railroad Telegrapher, Order of Railroad Telegraphers (U.S.), Order of Railroad Telegraphers (U.S., Order of Railroad Telegraphers, 1916
Item notes: v.33:pt.1 (1916)1
"The board of directors of the Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis at the monthly meeting last week adopted several resolutions which placed the association squarely on record regarding the further protection of dairy products in line with the resolution recently introduced by J. Charles Linthicum, of Maryland in the House of Representatives."
-"Demand Pure Dairy Food.", The Washington Post,, March 5, 1916, pg. ES12
"Federal inspection of milk, butter, and dairy products entering into interstate commerce was advocated in the House today by J. Charles Linthicum, a Maryland Democrat, who has pending before the Rules Committee a resolution for a Congressional Investigation of "the truth of charges that milk, butter, ice cream, and other products of milk are in many cases, filthy, disease-breeding, and unfit for human consumption." "It is claimed" said Mr. Linthicum, "That many huge frauds discovered by the Internal Revenue Bureau have been committed by butter factories and butter dealers. These factories are free from Government inspection, and they are able to get in oils and artificial colorings and thereby greatly increase their output, which is sold as butter,. Thus the factories defraud the Government of its taxes and the consuming public in the character of article sold." According to Mr. Linthicum, Hoard's Dairyman, a dairy journal, says: "The large central creameries have been the chief, though not the only sinners. They have invaded the territory of the local creameries and forced them to let down the bars to all that is bad in cream."
-"Asks Federal Dairy Law". The New York Times. April 2, 1916, pg. 18
-Report of the Commissioner of Education., United States Office of Education, Government printing office, 1910,p.46,
Lineage of Honorable J. Charles Linthicum
Gen. II-D Thomas Linthicum Jr., mar. June 22, 1698, Deborah Wayman, dau. of Leonard, Sr., and Dorcas Wayman.
Gen. III-I Hezekiah, school-master, b. Nov. 7, 1723, mar. cir. 1750,Sarah Bateman, b. 1713, dau. of Henry and Sarah (Powell) Bateman.
Gen. Iv-6 Abner, Sr., b. 1763, mar. 1791, Rachel Jacob, gr. dau. of Richard, Sr., and Hannah (Howard) Jacob.
D William b. 1798, mar. 1823, Betsy Sweetser, descendant of Roger Williams.
1 Sweetser Linthicum b. 1824, mar 1847, Laura E. Smith, b. 1829, h.
Children of Sweetser Linthicum Sr.
(Not Shown: Asa Shinn Linthicum, Sr., Victoria Linthicum)
Elizabeth Valeria b. Dec. 17, 1847 d. Jan. 5, 1934
James Smith b. Sept. 1`9, 1850, d. June, 1912.
Annie Sweetser b. Dec. 17, 1853, d. 1936
William b. Oct. 16, 1856, d. Feb. 24, 1934
Asa Shinn b. Nov. 28, 1859, d. Jan. 4, 1897.
Sweetser Jr. b. July 4, 1869 d.1997
Victoria April 17, 1865, d. April 11, 1867
Honorable John Charles Linthicum b. 1867, d. 1932. For twenty-two years represented his District in Congress. Mar. (1) Nov. 28, 1893, Eugenia May Biden; mar. (2) Mar. 9, 1898, Helen A., Clarke. No Children.(The Linthicums adopted Helen's Nephew later known as: J. Charles Linthicum Junior following his 18th birthday)
Dr. George Milton, b. Aug. 17, 1870 d. 1935
Seth Hance b. July 26, 1873 d.1965
Wade Hampton b. Feb. 14, 1876.d,1945
-Genealogy of the Linthicum and Allied Families., Matilda, P. Badger, Baltimore, Md., 1934.,p.64.
Entered the Masons December 10, 1900
Becomes Master Mason February 11, 1901
Member: John H.B. Latrobe Lodge in Baltimore
-Source: Maryland Grand Lodge.
Sweetser Linthicum Feb.
19, 1991 notes
1658-Thomas Linthicum, Sr., "The settler" (Original spelling: Linscomb name changed to Linthicum at time of American Revolution) English/Welsh, eighteen years old at the time. Becomes tobacco planter owning lands on West and South rivers and in Crofton Area.
1699- Willed plantation-"Linthicum Walks" near Crofton to Thomas, Jr. Son. Descendant of Thomas Jr. Abner living at Linthicum Walks moves to North Anne Arundel County February, 28, 1801 purchased tract of land "Andover" from Richard Ridgely. Becomes Linthicum Heights.
1857- Twin Oaks, home of Charles Linthicum,built by grandfather William Linthicum.
November 26, 1867- Born, "Turkey Hill" Linthicum Heights, Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Parents: Sweetser and Laura Ellen Linthicum
1801- Settlement-Sweetser Linthicum Sr., father of J. Charles, was large land owner and farmer. Property on the North side of the Patapsco River, Baltimore County. Owned wharf on the Patapsco and owned a boat used to ship produce to Baltimore. Farm required large number of workers who settled nearby. A self sufficient community developed. "Uncle Charley" grew up on this farm.
Charles helped with chores on the farm. Was known as ambitious and energetic. Liked riding farm boat and wagons going to markets in the city. He hauled ice from the Patapsco River in Winter. The home place had an ice house. J. Charles loved ice skating on the pond (now parking lot and field of St. John's Lutheran Church, Maple Road, Linthicum Heights.
Education: Attended Anne Arundel County and Baltimore City public schools. Wanted to become a teacher.
1886- Graduated Maryland State Normal School, Baltimore. 19 years old
1886-7 Taught in Anne Arundel County
1887- Transferred to Frederick County becomes principal of Braddock School.
Entered Johns Hopkins University studying Political History and economics. Takes up interest in law and politics.
1890- Graduates University of Maryland Law School, opens law practice with partner brother Seth H. Linthicum, Sr., Baltimore City. Partnership lasted for the rest of Charles' life.(1932)
1893- Marries Eugenia May Biden and lived in Baltimore. No children.
1897- Eugenia Dies.
1898- J. Charles marries Helen A. Perry Clarke, widow, Father was Dr. John L. Perry of Saratoga Springs, New York. Ancestor was Captain Oliver Hazard Perry, naval hero of war of 1812. There were no natural children. . Helen assisted with the political career.
1933, Feb. 17, Memorial U.S. Rep. Cole of Md. :Mrs. Linthicum's devotion to him was a matter of knowledge to all of his friends in the House. Their home was open to all of us, and the hospitality of tat home which most of us enjoyed will live in our memories for all time."
1903- Ran for the Maryland House of Delegates, Third Legislative District, Baltimore City.
1905- Due to success runs for State senate. Hotly contested election. Serves in the Senate till 1911.
1908- Election, Served also as Presidential elector Dem. for William Jennings Bryan and Kern.
1908-1911- Serves as Judge Advocate General to Governor Austin L. Crothers.
1908- With his brothers: Seth H. Linthicum, Sr., Wade Hampton Linthicum, Dr. George Milton Linthicum and Sweetser Linthicum Sr. forms Linthicum Heights Company. Purpose was to develop portions of family land-originally settled by Abner Linthicum.\
Linthicum Heights Developed: "Well-planned, "Beautiful" surrounding Baltimore and Annapolis Short Line Railroad (Later becomes Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Railroad)
Charley Linthicum, proud of community, attends church suppers, bazaars, carnivals and community affairs. He made his home "Twin Oaks" available for these events held on the lawn. (most events were held adjacent to the Old Town Hall near intersection of Maple and Camp Mead Roads)
1909- Linthicum Heights Company gives two lots on the North East corner of Maple and Camp Meade roads to Linthicum Heights Methodist Protestant Church. (a "pretty" gray stone church was erected becoming: Linthicum Heights United Methodist Church. Charles and brothers and sisters donate stained glass window "The Good Shepherd" in memory of their parents: Sweetser and Laura Ellen Linthicum. John Charles' wife Helen donates a large bell in memory of her niece, Mrs. Virginia Perry Dillon. Later the church moves to School Lane. Money via John Charles Linthicum's will funds 15 metal-bell carillon. Bells are inscribed "to the glory of God and in honor of his wife Helen A. Linthicum." Bell remains in the grey stone church.
1910- Democratic candidate for United States Congress( House of Representatives) Fourth District of Baltimore City.
1911- Elected to 62nd congress March 4. (served until 1932.
Accomplishments- Erection of U.S. Post Office and Federal Court Building, Baltimore additionally- Marine Hospital, Veterans Hospital, Appraisers Store. Helped to enlarge and improve port of Baltimore, preservation of Fort McHenry, Erection at Fort McHenry of Francis Scott Key Monument dedicated also to soldiers and sailors of War of 1812, helps fund via appropriation the restoration of warship "Constellation.
He supported veterans and veterans organizations.
Was concerned about conservation and environment and natural resources.
Favors low tariff. Supports World Court, Friend and supporter of Woodrow Wilson.
Did not drink, opposed Prohibition
1918- Bill establishing "The Star-Spangled Banner" as national anthem introduced. "Perhaps Congressman Linthicum's best known legislation". Works with Mrs. Ruben Ross Halloway, Society of the War of 1812., Daughters of the American Revolution and Sons of the American Revolution, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign wars and others. Petition of almost 5 million names supported the legislation.
1927- Becomes chairman of Anti- Prohibition Lobby. Responsible for repeal of 18th Amendment. (He thought Volstead Act "infringed upon the rights of the people and did more harm that good for the nation.
1930- April Star Spangled Banner Bill passed
1931- March, 3 Star Spangled banner bill signed into law by president Hoover.
1981- March 3, Ceremony and reception held Fort McHenry recognizing work on Star Spangled Banner legislation. Linthicum Family members in Attendance.
Highest honor was succession to chairmanship of Foreign Affairs Committee of House of Representatives. Supported Foreign Service helps pass legislation improving ad updating service and construction of new embassies in foreign countries.
J. Charles and Helen were extensive travelers. Visited foreign counties frequently officially and as ordinary citizens.
1968- Towson State University dedicates "Linthicum Hall" in his honor. Charles and Helen established a number of scholarships at the university. He was closer to the Normal School than to other institutions. He was instrumental in getting state approval for construction of the Towson campus. Normal School becomes State Teachers College, then Towson Sate University.
Linthicums maintained residence (legal) 705 St. Paul Street, Baltimore. Four-story brick, large rooms, high ceilings beautiful wood paneling. Antiques and mementos from their travels.
When Congress was in session they lived at Hotel Roosevelt, Washington. Entertaining political, civilian and military people
"His great love"- country home, Linthicum Heights, "Twin Oaks," two and one-half story brick home. On one of highest elevations in area. Built by Congressman Linthicum's grandfather, William Linthicum, 1857. Home gets name from large oaks in front (no longer there). Charles got the home and 130 acres from his father, Sweetser Linthicum, Sr. Charles furnished it with things from travels including statuary, exotic plants, trees, It had a landscaped lawn. (Listed on the Maryland Register of Historic Places) Dignitaries entertained there: William Jennings Bryan and General Douglas MacArthur. House exists with 5 acres of land. Owned at time or writing by Colonel Seth H., Linthicum, Jr., U.S., Army, Retired, and M. Jane Linthicum his wife. (nephew of Congressman Linthicum).
"Uncle Charley kept several beautiful peacocks that roamed around the lawns" they chased people walking through the property. Lawns and statuary were impressive. Chauffer was Alec who drove a big limousine with seal of the United States
.Twin Oaks Front hall (Maryland Historical Trust)
Twin Oaks Ground Floor Fireplace (Maryland Historical Trust)
1932- September 23, Charles hospitalized, carbuncle on neck. Blood stream infection compounded by diabetic condition.
1932- October 5- died (candidate for 12th consecutive term as U.S. Congressman at the time the longest term of service of a Maryland representative)
1932- Memorial service February 17.
"Among the remarks made by his peers were that he was gentle, kind, considerate, patient, courtly, dignified, honest, tactful, and intelligent..
Representative Bloom of New York: "his personality is the heritage which will be ever treasured in the memory of his friends and associates."
Congressman Goldsborough: "Truly a fine figure."
The Baltimore Sun: "He had a way of life."
Sweetser Linthicum Jr.: "he was indeed a gentleman of the old school with all those fine characteristics that go with it."
"plain person who loved his family and fellow man and was friendly and kind to all. I remember one Halloween night when Aunt Helen and Uncle Charley invited our family to "Twin Oaks." My parents, Wade Hampton and Mary Delmah Linthicum, and my two sisters, Mary Del and Matilda, and I arrived fully costumed and masked. A big-time was had in guessing who was who. It was a happy time and everyone enjoyed the evening, especially Aunt Helen and Uncle Charley. We children felt that we had been well behaved, because we had remembered our parents warning not to sit on Aunt Helen's fragile musical chair. (It actually played pretty music when one sat on it.) Another time was when Uncle Charley wanted to listen to the Dempsey-Tunney prize fight, which I understand was the first boxing championship event ever broadcast. Knowing that we had a radio, he phoned us from "Twin Oaks" and asked if he and Aunt Helen could come over to listen to this great sporting event. We were pleased to have them, and everyone huddled together around the radio and listened to the fight. They were both enthusiastic listeners. They also entertained members of the various Linthicum families who were sometime accompanied by their children. Our hosts both loved children. If invited for lunch or dinner the adults would be served in the main dining room and the children would eat at the same time in a smaller adjoining room. Children and adults both enjoyed the same food and formal services by the staff. Uncle Charley was always closely attached to his brothers and sisters and interested in their loves and welfare.
-Swetser Linthicum, Jr. Esq. The Life of Congressman John Charles Linthicum., Original Manuscript, Anne Arundel County Historical Society, February 19, 1991.
Oil on canvas, Thomas C. Corner, 1932, Collection of U.S. House of Representatives http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000340
LINTHICUM, John Charles, a Representative from Maryland; born near Baltimore, in the locality now known as Linthicum Heights, Anne Arundel County, Md., November 26, 1867; attended the public schools of that county and Baltimore; was graduated from the State normal school in Baltimore in 1886; principal of Braddock School, Frederick County, in 1887, and taught in the schools of Anne Arundel County; studied history and political science at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore; was graduated from the law department of the University of Maryland at Baltimore in 1890; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Baltimore in 1890; member of the State house of delegates in 1904 and 1905; served in the State senate 1906-1909; unsuccessful candidate for mayor of Baltimore in 1907; judge advocate general on the staff of Gov. Austin L. Crothers 1908-1912; elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-second and to the ten succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1911, until his death; chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs (Seventy-second Congress); had been re-nominated to the Seventy-third Congress at the time of his death; delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1924; died in Baltimore, Md., October 5, 1932; interment in Druid Ridge Cemetery. (source as photo above)
JOHN CHARLES LINTHICUM, Democrat, of Baltimore, was
born at Linthicum
OFFICIAL CONGRESSIONAL DIRECTORY
Published by , 1922
J. Charles Linthicum (November 26, 1867-October 5, 1932) was a U.S. Congressman from the 4th Congressional district of Maryland, serving from 1911 to 1932.
Linthicum was born near Baltimore, Maryland, in the locality now known as Linthicum Heights, Maryland, and attended the public schools of Anne Arundel County and Baltimore. He graduated from the State normal school in Baltimore in 1886, and became principal of the Braddock School in Frederick County, Maryland in 1887. He also taught in the schools of Anne Arundel County, and studied history and political science at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He graduated from the law department of the University of Maryland at Baltimore in 1890, and was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Baltimore in 1890.
Linthicum served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates in 1904 and 1905, and in the Maryland State Senate from 1906 to 1909. He was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor of Baltimore in 1907, and was a judge advocate general on the staff of Maryland Governor Austin Lane Crothers from 1908 to 1912. He was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-second and to the ten succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1911, until his death. During the Seventy-second Congress, he served as chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, and had been re-nominated to the Seventy-third Congress at the time of his death. Linthicum had also served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1924. He died in Baltimore, and is interred in Druid Ridge Cemetery.
J. CHARLES LINTHICUM, Democrat.
Helen Aletta Linthicum
formerly Mrs. Gabriel D. Clark, originally Helen.
To learn about Helen's Treasures and Clothing click here
Images of objects associated with Helen click here
A.K.A.: Helen A. Perry Then
Helen A., Clarke then Helen A. Linthicum
Washington Post 1912 pg. 6
Washington Post, December 31, 1916, Pg. ES6
"Mrs. John Charles Linthicum. Wife of the Member of the Lower House from Baltimore, Who Will Be a Conspicuous Social Factor During the Democratic Regime. (Special Correspondence of the Times.). Washington, July 13.-One of the charming, well-poised members of the official set is Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum, wife of the member of Congress from the Fourth District of Maryland. A side light on her personality which will most eloquently proclaim her dignity and amiable characteristics is that in these days of changing standards and leveling ideas, Mrs. Linthicum retains the servants whom she secured nearly eighteen years ago in her early married life. To them she and her husband are "Miss. Helen" and "Mr. Charlie," as they were before the servant class was, so to speak, uplifted out of existence. To bring six old-time, well-trained Negros from Baltimore into the rarified atmosphere which envelopes the capital and to keep them unspoiled, simple and faithful as in their old Maryland home shows at once that Mrs. Linthicum possesses that strength of character in which amiability is combined with the Christian-like desire to fulfill every duty.
"It is becoming rather trite to discourse on home duties," remarked Mrs. Linthicum, "still they always appeared paramount in my life and to keep the domestic machinery well oiled and running smoothly seemed the mission of every woman who assumed the duties of matrimony. To conduct even a modest home requires patience, forethought and a diligent effort to understand details and to make them fit in so that every one will be happy and comfortable. All this takes time, still I do not think it should assume all the time. A few unbreakable rules help one so much. For instance, I have made it a point in my life, never to receive casual callers, the sort that drop in any time and perhaps interrupt well matured plans and prevent the performance of necessary duties. Sometimes it causes a little chagrin and one has to do some explaining, but in the end, it is a wise rule, which I commend to women who wish to make their day commensurate with their duties.
"I know nothing of the servant problem, though I have sometimes to pour oil on troubled waters and to compromise and to advise. I have rules in my household and I adhere to them as strictly as I desire the retainers to do. A sense of justice in dealing with others, is a powerful measure toward general harmony. I do not invade the rights of others nor do I permit them to invade my rights, and this, strictly enforced, will smooth down many rough places. I feel a personal responsibility towards those who serve in my home, for their comfort and content even for their amusements, and they, in turn, are devoted to our interests and are faithful in their duties. I like to praise them as they deserve it; though I do not like to correct, if that is necessary. This goes a long way toward permanency in domestic ties and keeps your people with you.
"That a certain part of time and energy must be given to the infinitesimal details of life is the verdict of every successful home keeper. When all this has been done and for the woman who has a sense of management, an hour or two a day suffices to direct even a large and complicated domestic machinery, then I think a woman should exert her influence for good and worthy causes. I cannot enroll myself under the banner of women seeking public honors or asking recognition in the political sense, but I heartily endorse the efforts of women to achieve certain things which in the great rush of life have been overlooked. I have the honor of being among the very first to answer to the call for an organized feminine Democracy and I have conscientiously and sincerely worked for the success of the cause. Naturally, the Democratic cause will appeal to me, but in this work, I think we have a higher and broader mission than merely political distinctions. It has been my hope to see women laboring for what is the best in life, the best government, local and national, and to see them accomplish something which makes their desire for a larger mission absolutely logical.
"In the organization of Democratic women which now is known under various different names, our first idea was to become known to each other and then to formulate more ambitious plans. This is in the main still an important issue and much good will invariably result when women who represent something in their own communities become familiar with the needs and aspirations of those far remote. I like to see practical results in anything in which I am connected. We know htat when all the diverging elements mingle harmoniously, it looks well for the cause espoused, so we are working with might and main for harmony. Then we take up other threads and weave them into our plans, all with a definite purpose of aiding the causes which appeal most to reason humanity even to religion. We all feel proud of the efforts of Mrs. Wilson, wife of the President and of her endeavors to bring all into line of fulfilling personal responsibility. With such an example every woman feels that the smallest effort is worth while. Mrs. Wilson will bring about a reform in housing the humbler residents of the capital and by degrees we will reach all the conditions which need championship. No line of political creed need separate women in these causes and I am sure it will not. Our Democratic women in forming an auxiliary branch as it were are merely following the fashion of long ago, when the women were most ardent politicians and held up the hands of the early fathers in every crusade. Just now there are many phases in public questions where women must go to the aid of sister woman. We have enlarged our vision and now few thoughtful people will purchase any sort of goods when it is fashioned under deleterious conditions for the workers. I hope that more and more feminine organizations will unite for such useful purpose."
Mrs. Linthicum is a pleasant conversationalist, telling interesting things in the unobtrusive way which never fatigues. In her early girlhood her father, Dr. John Leland Perry, was one of the eminent physicians of Saratoga Springs and she and her sister, Mrs. W.W. Wilder, saw a brilliant phase of life which no longer exists.
"It saddens me," said Mrs. Linthicum "to see the Springs now that its glories have departed. I remember when the first breath of summer brought there all those who were the least ailing and many who were not, but who wished to remain for the gay times possible. Bright plumage for the ladies and the stately ways of the gentlemen of those days with their long retinue of servants and ceremony of going backwards and forwards for the waters made a picture difficult to imagine now. Then that sound of music seemed always on the air and the nights were brilliant and lively as the days. One could see the beauty of all America, for even the opulent of South America came to Saratoga for the cure. It was not so much the fashion then to go abroad for the spas of Austria and of Germany. The time consumed in the journey was more than the busy man of that era could spare, so he came to Saratoga with his wife and children. When a belle and beauty of international fame arrived, every one was agog until she appeared on the promenade or at the Casino and when the tongues would wag in comparison to her claims against some former favorite. I spent all my early life in such environment and there I gained my love of people as study rather than of conditions or things considered academically. I attended a dear old French convent near Montreal and later went to Madam Seller's in Philadelphia. But I have always held tat experience is the wiser teacher4 and that to travel and to mingle among different circles of humanity is to get the broadest and most useful knowledge. I have gone to Europe, to every part many times, always with beneficial results. One of my principal pleasures in traveling after the exhilaration of mingling with people of different ideals is to collect unique belongings. My home in Baltimore also my country home is filled with reminders of delightful sojourns in foreign lands. I dislike the commonplace either in furnishings or in bric-a-brac or in art. So whenever I saw something which would fit in with other possessions, I purchased. My pictures mean a great deal to me for this reason and sitting quietly in my home, my eye falls on something gotten abroad and pleasant memories are awakened and I feel refreshed.
"I am a fervent believer in religion for everybody according as one finds refreshment in the different creeds. I believe in the discipline which the adherence to some special form of religion brings and to the stimulant to mind and soul which applied religion means. Therefore I count as the most sacred of my memories of travel a trip Mr. Linthicum and I took to the Holy Land. It was almost a pilgrimage we went about it so reverently and I regret that so many of my countrymen go to Paris and to Baden-Baden and to Monte Carlo and so few to the fountain head of our Christian religion. I cannot put in words the solace which that trip to Jerusalem, to Bethlehem, to the Mount of Olives to the Sea of Galilee and the River Jordan means even yet. I find everything near and therefore dearer to me. Certain ceremonies were before me a sort of dry formalism and now they are vivid, stimulating realities."
Mrs. Linthicum is among those who may be said in the broadest and truest sense to be a prime factor in the political career of her husband. She is unobtrusive in her aid as she is in her hospitalities but she is nevertheless a potent influence. The Baltimore home of Representative and Mrs. Linthicum has long been the recognized center of certain thoughtful and conservative members of society. Their country estate in Anne Arundel County, Twin Oaks is also well known among the hospitable mansions in an environment historically famous for social intercourse. House parties fill the country place with life and merriment always during the early summer and autumn. Mrs. Linthicum is partial to asking a few friends from Washington to dine in their Baltimore home. During the session the Linthicum's occupy an apartment in the Dresden out in Washington Heights and they entertain as extensively as such a temporary dwelling permits. They have never dismantled their Baltimore home but it is likely that they will take a house next winter and be among those who will land distinction to the new administration. Both are hospitably inclined and never so happy as when a large company gathers about their festive board.
Mrs. Linthicum coming of a distinguished revolutionary family both from her father and mother has always taken a keen interest in patriotic societies and is a member of the most prominent. With the brother Dr. John Leland Perry, Jr., of Saratoga, and her sister, Mrs. W.W. Wilder of Brooklyn, New York, she took a prominent part in the centenary of the battle of Lake Erie on July Fourth in which her kinsman Commodore Perry played so heroic a role. Mrs. Linthicum has always kept up her New York friends and she makes several visits yearly to her old home and to friends and relatives still residents there. She will spend the month of August in this familiar environment, going later to the Massachusetts resorts. Mrs. Linthicum's mother was Harriet Sadler, also a member of a patriotic family in New York which gave its best men and women to the revolution. When the D.A.R.'s were founded she and her sister were the first to join and Mrs. Linthicum is at present a member of the Baltimore chapter. She has known the present head of the great patriotic organization, Mrs. William Cumming Story, for many years. She was also on the most cordial terms with Mrs. Matthew T. Scott the former President-General. She is a member of the Dames of the Loyal Legion and the Society of the Mayflower. Her mother's family, the Sadlers were of English descent and the first to emigrate was Sir Ralph Sadler, a powerful knight who had followed the fortunes of the Puritans to Plymouth.
Representative and Mrs. Linthicum belong to the Episcopal faith and in Washington are communicants at the Church of Epiphany. Mr. Linthicum is a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and with Mrs. Linthicum has been conspicuously entertained by the members of the diplomatic corps. They have also entertained the strangers within the gates frequently and always in the most brilliant way. Though Mrs. Linthicum disclaims any national renown as a hostess or home keeper, both here and in Baltimore she is noted for giving perfectly successful dinners and other fetes, affairs planned with absolute nicety and always working out even to the least detail.
-"Mrs. John Charles Linthicum", Los Angeles Times, Jul. 20, 1913.
The War Transforms Social Life To the Life of Service. Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum, wife of one of Maryland's Congressmen, writes instructively of the transformation of the social life of the Nation's Capitol on account of the Great War. She says:
"I mention the transformation of Washington society because I am more familiar with its present working than I am with those of other places except hat of my own city of Baltimore, which is likewise following the footsteps of the National Capitol.
Before the war began there were vast numbers of receptions, dinners, and other social activities. Each, while giving much pleasure and gratification to the participants, left no permanent or lasting benefits for the community and the country at large. At the outbreak of the war, however, many persons closely interested in those abroad, began taking up lines of endeavor for the relief of the suffering and for the greater comfort of those in the hospitals and on the battlefields notably Belgian relief work. These activities were confined at first to those more or less interested in persons abroad and those accustomed to such work. It has now spread throughout the entire social fabric of Washington to such an extent that aside from social activities rendered necessary by the visiting missions from foreign nations, and dinners, and other affairs to show them the great welcome which the American people have to bestow upon them, the social activity of Washington is almost solely confined to those affairs wherein the participants not alone enjoy themselves socially but have combined charity and relief work with it.
I mention, for instance, the vast number of women who meet often for the purpose of sewing for the soldiers abroad, the making of comfort bags, bandages and all those things which are necessary on the field of battle and in the hospitals abroad. Then there are the Red Cross workers, who work day after day in the interest of that splendid organization. There are those engaged in food conservation and in the spreading of information which will tend to help our people in preparing for the months to come in the nature of food products. In fact, the great boy of women who formerly knew little other than society work have become efficient and useful social workers.
The situation has been of great benefit to womankind in general. It has shown them that each and every one can do her part to ameliorate the hardships of this cruel conflagration. At home, in the club, in the social center, or whatever place it may be, they are doing their bit, just as much as the soldiers on the fields of battle.
It has shown American women who theretofore have engaged only in the social affairs of life that they can enjoy themselves just as well in doing something for humanity as they could to pleasure seeking. It has enabled each one to find herself, as it were, and to demonstrate that she can accomplish things along this line just as well as those who have been practicing it all their lives. One may be a good seamstress and do splendid work along that line; another may be adapted to nursing and find that she can accomplish great results in her particular line; another may find that she can teach others to conserve the food resources of the country, and then there are those who can teach health regulations and first aid work."
-Denton Journal | Denton, Maryland | Saturday, July 14, 1917 | Page 2
"Linthicum, Helen, A., on Feb. 4, 1944, at her home, Baltimore, Md., wife of the late J. Charles Linthicum (Mrs. Linthicum also resided in Washington, D.C. Funeral service old St. Paul's Church Baltimore, on Monday morning at 11 o' clock
-"Obituary1".,The New York Times, Feb. 5, 1944. pg. 15.
"Mrs. Linthicum, Native Of Saratoga, Dies. Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum, a native of Saratoga Springs and widow of the late Rep. Linthicum, (D- Md. ), died yesterday at her home in Baltimore. An active Maryland clubwoman, she was 78.
She was a member of the Daughters of 1812 and the Dames of the Loyal Legion. She served as state chaplain of the D.A.R.
Funeral services will be conducted Monday from St. Paul's
Episcopal Church at Baltimore.
-Troy Record, The | Troy, New York | Saturday, February 05, 1944 | Page 19
Scholarships to Towson available. Widow Of Congressman To Give $1,000 to Student Teachers. Ten $100 scholarships to Towson State Teacher's College are being made available to Maryland high school graduates this year through the will of Helen Linthicum widow of Congressman J. Charles Linthicum who was an alumna of the school.
This money is to be used to defray expenses connected with attending Towson. There is no tuition fee at Towson and the money would be applied to books, fee, and living costs. It will be paid in two installments one at the beginning of each semester.
The scholarships will be awarded on the basis of recommendations of the school principals-not only on ability and work, but on personal characteristics as well. They will be reviewed by a faculty board and then turned over to the state trustees. Towson students do not pay tuition, but in return for this they sign a waver promising to teach for two years in Maryland schools at regular salaries. This leaves only book and living cost to be accounted for, perhaps $150.
Students not wishing to teach may take a two-year junior college course paying $100 a year semester.
-Morning Herald., Hagerstown, Maryland ,Thursday, May 19, 1949 , Page 21
Helen A. Perry was the daughter of John Leland Perry of Saratoga Springs New York. Her brother Dr. John L. Perry was noted as the proprietor of the United States Hotel at Saratoga Springs. Her Sister was married to William H. McCaffrey, proprietor of the American and Adelphi Hotels at Saratoga Springs for many years. Mrs. Wilder had a son John T. McCaffrey, account who worked in the office of the Commissioner of Accounts, New York City .-The New York Times, Decemgber 5, 1913,p.11.
D. A. R
MRS. HELEN A. PERRY LINTHICUM. 56051
Atlantic Reporter: Second Series - Page 455 by West Publishing Company, Connecticut Supreme Court, New Jersey Supreme Court, Maryland Court of Special Appeals, Maine Supreme Judicial Court, Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Connecticut Court of Common Pleas, Rhode Island Supreme Court, Delaware Court of Chancery, Vermont Supreme Court, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, New Jersey County Courts, Delaware Superior Court and Orphans Court - Law reports, digests, etc - 1905
Action by Harry B. Polk
and others against Helen A. Linthicum. From an order
(Note- the errors below come from a poor optical scan and will be corrected in the near future stop back again!)
Helen Aletta Linthicum
Helen Aleetta Linthicum nee Perry, formerly Mrs. Gabriel DuVall Clark, Sr., daughter of Dr. John Leland Perry and Harriet Sadler Perry was born at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. She was educated at Hochlaga Convent, Canada. Her father, was First Surgeon, during the war between the States, known as the Civil War, and her bother, Dr. John Leland Perry, Jr. served as his assistant. Maryland is justly proud of this daughter of her adoption, who became the wife of the Hon. John Charles Linthicum, Representative in Congress. The marriage was solemnized at Emmanuel P.E. Church, Baltimore, by Dr. James Houston Eccleston, rector, on March 9, 1898. Mr. Linthicum has been instrumental in the passage of Fort McHenry Bill and fathered the bill which made the Star-Spangled Banner our national anthem. The National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, is assured of his support in any patriotic endeavor. Mr. Linthicum is Ranking Member in the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Democratic Party. Mrs. Linthicum was sponsored by Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth and Mrs. D. Putnam, founders of the National Society, D.A.R., for membership in the organization. She has served as Chaplain of Baltimore Chapter, the mother chapter of the State for years, as State Chaplain of Maryland and is Honorary Chaplain at this time. Mrs. Linthicum's name will be presented for the National office of Chaplain-General at the next Continental Congress. She is also Chaplain of the Maryland University Hospital Auxiliary and her services in this capacity prove most helpful to all who are fortunate enough to be included in her jurisdiction.
Mrs. Linthicum is a woman who stands out pre-eminently as a Christian and patriot. She is always to be found on the right side of any moral issue, and has the courage of her Revolutionary ancestors in expressing her opinion with grace and dignity. As a loyal D.A.R. Mrs. Linthicum has assisted most generously in the advancement of this great patriotic society, not only by gifts of money, but in placing memorials to her mother, sisters, nieces and friends in Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, D.C. In Constitution Hall which she was privileged to name, she has placed fifteen chairs in the auditorium in honor of her mother, relatives, to Mrs. Adam Demmead, Hon. State Regent, D.A.R., to Mrs. E.H. Walworth, Mr. Aristides S. Goldsborough and other friends. She placed a drinking fountain, sofa; clock, assisted in placing the ventilators in the new hall, and in appreciation of the splendid achievements of several Presidents General presented personal gifts. The handsome silk National Flag in Constitution Hall was a gift from Mrs. Linthicum. October 10th 1921, she presented a silk flag to the Battleship Maryland through Captain Preston. Her gifts of National and State flags and banners to the State Society, D.A.R. to various chapters, the latest being the Erasmus Perry chapter recently organized have been so highly esteemed that the very appropriate title, "Our Flag Lady" has been bestowed upon her. Mrs. John Charles Linthicum's name is engraved upon the Maryland Bell in the Peace Chime at Valley Forge as the first contributor. The Maryland State Society, D.A.R., placed a stone in the National Cathedral, which is being erected at Mt. Saint Alban, Washington, D.C., in her honor. This was conducted with appropriate ceremony, the Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman, D.D., presiding. Mrs. Linthicum is a member of the National Society, Patriotic Women of America, Dames of Loyal Legion, Colonial Legion, Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century, Hopostill Leland, 1678, being her ancestor, the Founders and Patriots of America, the Armorial Ancestry, Sir Symond Fyske, her ancestor, and the Civic League as well as the D.A.R. She was presented with a medal in commemoration of the first Continental Congress held in the new D.A.R. Building which she had named Constitution Hall. Mrs. Linthicum was active in all lines of war work during the World War for which she received a certificate. She made more than a hundred kits for "our boys over there" was chairman of the Free Wool Committee during the period of the war and received the commendation of the Army and Navy for her consecrated devotion to the cause. She is interested in various charitable organizations among them being the "Shelter for Colored People" and the Salvation Army; was Captain of the prize winning team in the campaign for Endowood funds, the prize being a fine shoat from Eudowood farms, and was auditor for the Council of National Defense. She is Dean of the Congressional Club at Washington City, where she entertains, and is the recipient of invitations to many delightful social functions. Two poems written by members of the Society of the Maryland D.A.R., testify to the high esteem in which Mrs. John Charles Linthicum of Baltimore, Linthicum Heights and Washington, is held by her numerous friends.
On June 14th, 1931, at the celebration of Flag Day at the War Memorial Plaza, Mr. Linthicum presented to Mrs. Ruben Ross Holloway, Chairman of the Flag Committee for the Daughters of 1812, the pen with which President Hoover signed the Star-Spangled Banner Bill.
To Our Hostess
(Mrs. J. Chas. Linthicum)
-Mrs. Henry M. Roberts, Jr.
To Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum,
An Appreciation from Baltimore Chapter, D.A.R.
-1930, Anna Hamilton Wood.
-Luckett, Margie, H., Maryland Women., V. I, Baltimore, Maryland, 1931, pp.248-253
E..mail response Re. Role of Mrs. Linthicum in the D.A.R.
Hello Conrad, This is what I have regarding Helen A. Linthicum. She did not hold any offices at the National level of the DAR. However, she did serve as chaplain of the Maryland State Society DAR for two terms, 1918-1922 and 1927-1931. It does appear that she was an active and prominent member, but I don't have access to the records of the state society or Baltimore Chapter so I can't say for sure what all she was involved in, besides holding the office of state chaplain. From what I can tell, though, that was the only state office that she held. One other activity of hers that I came across was that she presented a U.S. Flag to Constitution Hall during the National Society's annual meeting in 1930. It seems that she was very involved in promoting the flag throughout her life. When reading one of the quotes that you sent in the previous email, I noticed that she was referred to as a "captain" of the Maryland DAR. I think this must be an error, or the transcriber heard incorrectly. The DAR does not use the term "captain" for any of its offices. It seems that perhaps "chaplain" was misheard as "captain." (I do see that it says she was also a member of the Daughters of 1812. I am not sure whether they use the term "captain" or not.) We do not have any biographical or vertical file on Mrs. Linthicum unfortunately. I could not locate a photograph of her in any of the Maryland publications, the DAR Magazine, or our archival photograph collection. These sources are only partially indexed, but it is not common for us to have pictures of (identified) members unless they held some National office. As for the claim that Mrs. Linthicum named Constitution Hall, I am afraid that statement seems to be false. According to the minutes of the National Society, the name originated with members in either Minnesota or Pennsylvania. There are competing claims of course, but I see no evidence that the name was first suggested by Mrs. Linthicum or any member from Maryland. I would advise you to contact the state historian of the Maryland DAR to see if they have additional records relating to Mrs. Linthicum. She would probably be mentioned in their publications, such as the annual state conference proceedings and reports. I hope this information helps, and please let me know if you have any further questions! Christina
Christina R. Lehman Archivist National Society Daughters of the American Revolution 1776 D Street, NW Washington, DC 20006-5303
Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2008.
Dear Mr. Bladey, Having checked several additional sources, I still do not see any evidence that Mrs. Linthicum was associated with naming Constitution Hall. She is not mentioned in the programs or accounts of the cornerstone laying, the consecration ceremony, or the official dedication of the building. Sincerely, Christina Lehman ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Christina R. Lehman Archivist National Society Daughters of the American Revolution 1776 D Street, NW Washington, DC 20006-5303 Phone: 202-628-1776 ext. 384 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Monday October 20, 2008
p.96, New York Supplement.
In re McCaffrey's Estate.
(Supreme Court, General Term Third Department November 20, 1888
1. Trust- Powers of Trustee- lease of Trust Property.
Land was conveyed to a trustee to receive the rents and profits, and pay them to H,. for life, and on her death the land was to be sold or partitioned one-third to vest in A.; a further trust being declared, as to the residue. Held, that the trustee had no power to make a lease valid, as against A., beyond the life of H.
2. Executors And Administrators- Probate Practice - Appraisement- Power of Suyrrogate.
The surrogate has no authority to direct appraisers as to the manner in which they shall estimate the value of a decedent's property, or to order the personal representative to estimate value of such property.
Appeal from the surrogate's court, Saratoga County.
In 1871, John S. Perry executed to Joseph A Shondy a deed by which he conveyed a lot of land in trust. The trust was to receive the rents and profits, and pay the same to Harriet Perry for her natural life. On her death the land was to be sold or partitioned. One-third was to be vested in Annie E. McCaffrey, a daughter of said Harriet, her heirs and assigns. Another third was to be vested in said trustee, in trust to apply the income to Helen A. Perry, another daughter, till she became 21, then that third to vest in her in fee. Another third was to vest in said trustee, in trust to apply the income to Mary L. Eggeling, another daughter, during her natural life; at her death, that third to go to her descendants in fee, living at her death. I was further provided that if either Annie, Helen A., or Mary L. should die without lawful descendants, the share of the person so dying should go to the other two or the survivor of them. Except that, any share which would otherwise go to Mary L. should go to said trustee for her benefit. On September 22, 1880, Payne, the successor of Shondy in the trust, executed a lease of the land to William H. McCaffrey for five years from May1, 1881, with a privilege to McCaffrey of renewal for five years more. On the 13th of March 1885 Chapman, then the successor of the trustee, executed a renewal of the lease to McCaffrey for five years. Harriet Perry died May 10, 1886. McCaffrey paid no rent under the renewal, and at his death, November 2, 1886, $5,000 rent were unpaid. His widow Annie E. McCaffrey, aforesaid, afterwards married one Wilder, and was appointed administratrix with the will annexed of McCaffrey. She filed an inventory of his personal estate, but did not place therein the said lease. On the application of creditors of McCaffrey, the surrogate ordered her to place on the inventory said lease, and also ordered her and the appraisers to estimate the value thereof from November 2., 1886 , to May 1, 1891, and insert int in the inventory. The administratrix appeals….
We think, Therefore, that so far at least as Mrs. McCarrrey's one-third is concerned, the lease ceased to be valid: and that, as administratrix of McCaffrey, she was not required to put it in the inventory. We decide nothing as to the other two-thirds. The facts are not before us. Order reversed, with $10 costs, and printing disbursements.
Landon and Ingalls, JJ., concur.
-New York Supplement., National Reporter System, New York (State). Superior Court (New York), New York (State). Court of Appeals, New York (State). Supreme Court, West Publishing Company, West Publishing Company., 1889.
An Act relative to lands held in trust by Charles H. Holden for the benefit of Harriet Perry and certain of her descendants. Passed May 19, 1876.
The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:
Section 1,. On the petition of Charles H. Holden, as trustee, and of Harriet Perry, Anne E. McCaffrey and her children in being, Helen A. Perry and Mary L. Eggelling, in person, if of age, and by a next friend, if infants, the Supreme Court at any special term held the county of Saratoga, or in any adjoining county, may authorize the mortgaging for the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, or such less sum, as shall be necessary, of that lot of land in the village of Saratoga Springs, New York, known as the Adelphi Hotel
The Adelphi Hotel Left, The Perry Building Right (373-381) Broadway, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.
premises, and bounded on the east by Broadway, in the said village; on the south and west by the American hotel premises; on the north by premises lately owned by John L. Perry, deceased, by deed dated December sixth, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, to Joseph A. Shondy, as trustee, for the benefit of Harriet Perry and certain of her descendants. The said Charles H Holden having been duly appointed in place and stead of the said Joseph A Shoudy as trustee to carry out the trusts in said deed contained, and now holding the title of said real estate for the benefit of said Harriet and certain of her descendants. The court shall, on such petition, appoint one or more suitable persons as guardian for each of the petitioners as are infants on said proceedings, and take proof in open court, or appoint a referee to take proof and report to the court as to the truth of the facts set out in the petition, and the amount of money required. If on such proof being made it shall appear that the facts stated in said petition are true, and that the buildings on above premises are so dilapidated as to require rebuilding or extensive alterations and repairs, and that the true interest of said Harriet and her descendants interested in said property would be promoted by a loan of money secured by a mortgage on said premises to rebuild or alter and repair said building, said special term of the Supreme Court is hereby authorized and empowered to authorize a loan by said trustee for the sum of twenty five thousand dollars., or such less sum, as may appear to be necessary, secured by a mortgage on said premises……(the mortgage was approved) 6. This act shall take effect immediately.
-Laws of the State of New York., New York (State Legislative Bill Drafting Commission, New York,1876
Gabriel D. Clark Dead
Had amassed a Fortune by Early Industry and Judicious Investments
A Believer in Baltimore
He Was the Largest Individual Holder of City Passenger Railway stock
Was Also One of the Largest Holders of Ground Rents in Baltimore nad Never Made a Single Investment Out of This City.
Mr Gabriel D. Clark, formerly a well-known jeweler, died at 6:15 o'clock yesterday morning at his home 705 St. Paul Street. Mr. Clark had been ill since last July with bladder trouble, but had only been confined to his bed a couple of months. His last appearance on the street, however, was in August, and until the time that he took to his bed he was not able to leave the house.
It was not thought on Monday that Mr. Clark was any worse than he had been for several weeks. In fact, he seemed better in the morning, but toward night he did not seem so well. He complained of a pain in the head.
Zit was early yesterday morning that Mrs. Clark, who was in the room with her husband, called Mr. Clark's sister, Mrs. F.F. Wilder of Yonkers N.Y. who has been with him for some time. Mrs. Clark said she noticed a change in Mr. Clark's condition. His death occurred a few minutes later, after Mrs. Wilder had been called, and he died in her arms.
Mr. Clark was born in Prince George's county, March 25, 1813, and was therefore in his eighty-fourth year at the time of his death. He was a son of the late Benjamin Clark, of that county, who was a farmer. The father died when he was still a small child, and Judge Gabriel Duval, of the United States Supreme Court, and a life-long friend of Benjamin Clark, became the guardian of Gabriel Clark.
His early education was gained at the county schools and through tuition at home. Shortly after Judge Duval became his guardian he was placed in St. John's College, at Annapolis, but becoming weary of study and having a longing to see the world, he left school and came to Baltimore, where he was taken into the employ of Watchmaker Foxcroft, who taught him the trade.
The place of business conducted by Mr. Foxcroft was on Water Street near Calvert street, and here the young man, who had always shown a remarkable aptitude for learning, soon mastered the complete details of the trade. His employer and benefactor died in 1829, and Mr. Clark, then but seventeen years old, bought the place and started into business for himself. He acquired a reputation for skill in repairing the delicate mechanisms of timekeepers and this brought him a profitable trade.
Mr. Clark remained at the Water street store until about 1850 when, finding hs business affairs in a flourishing condition, he removed to a more pretentious store at the corner of Calvert and Water streets. He remained there until about three years ago when eh permanently retired from active mercantile pursuits.
A great deal of Mr. Clark's wealth consisted of Baltimore City Passenger Railway stock, of which he held at his death about 13,000 shares. He was the largest individual holder in the company and also the oldest director. The City Passenger Railway Company was organized in 1859, and Mr. Clark was one of the earliest subscribers to its stock which then consisted of 40,000 shares. Five or six years later he was made a director. At that time his holdings were in the neighborhood of 4,000 shares. When the company exiled the horse as a propelling power and adopted rapid-transit methods the stock was increased to 100,000 shares, and Mr. Clark came into possession of about one-eighth of the entire amount.
It was a matter of pride with him that he owed his large capital entirely to his early and successful industry and his subsequent investments in Baltimore. He never made a single investment outside of this city and frequently advised others whose capital had been placed in enterprises in other cities that the most secure and best-paying investments were to be had at home.
His investments in the stock of the Mercantile Trust and Deposit Company and similar concernse were very large. He was also one of the largest ground-rent owners in Baltimore nad counted his first successful ventures among such investments.
About sixty-one years ago Mr. Clark was married to Miss. Margaret Dukehart, a daughter of the late Mr. Balerian Dukehart. She died in 1882 and he remarried the following year. Hi second wife was Miss Helen Perry, of Saratoga, N.Y., who survives him. She was the daughter of the late Dr. John L. and Harriet Perry. Two children by his first wife also survive. They are Mr. Gabriel D. Clark., Jr., of 913 St. Paul Street and Mrs. Lucius C. Polk, now residing at the Hotel Reonert (*?) Mr. Augustus O. Clark, treasurer of the Baltimore City Passenger Railway Company, and Mr. Fayette H. Clark, of 14 East Mount Royal avenue are nephews of Mr. Clark. Mrs. Chauncey Gambril of 913 St. Paul street, is the only granddaughter of Mr. Clark. Her daughter, Miss. Helen E., is the only great-grandchild.
The funeral will take place tomorrow afternoon at 3 o'clock from the house.
The pall-bearers selected are"
Acting-….Henry V. Ward, B. Sterrett McKim, John Redwood, A.B. Clark, Fayette Clark, Wm. Starr Gephart.
Honorary- E. Austin Jenkins, Col Walter S. Franklin, John W. Hall, Gen. John Grill, Wilton Snowden, Edwin F.Abell, John S. Gittings, Richard Cornelius, William W. Spence, P.T. George, Michael Jenkins, Launcelot Gambrill.
-Baltimore Sun., December 9, 1896, Vol. CXX, Issue 20, p. 6.
Bertron Vs. Polk
In this case it was to be decided of stock in the Consolidated Gas Company of Baltimore belonging to Gabriel D. Clark (first husband of Helen A. Linthicum) could be sold or should be retained as a good investment by the estate.)
Mr. Clark died in December, 1896, leaving a large and valuable estate, approximating in value nine hundred thousand dollars which he disposed of by a last will and testament.
The will was duly admitted to probate in the Orphan's Court of Baltimore City. Gabriel D. Clark, Jr., Helen A. Clark and the Mercantile Trust and Deposit Company of Baltimore, qualified as trustees, under the will.
By the thirteenth clause of the will, Mr. Clark created a trust estate "for the benefit of his daughter, Mary E. Polk, for life, remainder to her son, Gabriel D. Clark Polk for life, remainder to the children of Gabriel Clark Polk, until the youngest reached the age of twenty-one years, when the trust would cease, etc., etc.,
The nine hundred and thirty shares of stock of the Gas Company, the property here in controversy, is a part of the trust estate and passed to the trustees, under the will upon the settlement of the personal estate in the Orphan's Court of Baltimore City.
The stock was held by the trustees, and the amount of income thereon paid to the life tenants until the 29th of November, 1902, when it was sold to the appellants, subject to the approval of the Court, at $83 per share ex-divedend, and the sale duly ratified by the Court.
Subsequently and before the stock was transferred, on petition of Mary E. Polk and Gabriel Claerk Polk, the two adult beneficiaries under the will, the order of the Court of the 29th of November, 1904, ratifying the sale was rescinded and an order of ratification nisi was passed in the case.
The appellants then, intervened by petition, testimony was taken, the case heard, and from an order of the Court sustaining the exceptions to the sale, this appeal has been taken….(it was then detailed that proceeds from the sale of the stock could not be re-invested to earn the same income. the order was affirmed)
- Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals of Maryland., Maryland Court of Appeals, John Murphy, 1906, pg. 690-691.
Linthicum et. al. V. Polk et al. (Court of Appeals of Maryland, March 7, 1901)
Appeal from superior court of Baltimore city; Henry D. Harlan, Judge,
"To be officially reported."
Suit by Mary E. Polk and others against Helen A. Linthicum and others, as executors of the estate of Gabriel D. Clark, deceased. From a decree of the superior court of Baltimore City reversing an order of the orphans' court dismissing te petition, defendants appeal Dismissed
Argued before McSherry, C, J., and Page, Pearce, Fowler, Boyd, Jones and Briscoe, J.J.
Thomas R. Clendinen and Chas. Linthicum & Bro. for appellants. Jas P. Gorter and H. Arthur Stump, for appellees.
Boyd, J. The appelees filed a petition in the orphans' court of Baltimore city, alleging that Helen A. Clark, now Linthicum, who is one of the executors of Gabriel D. Clark, had taken possession of, concealed, and has "in her own hands, and has omitted to return" in the inventories to the court certain silverware, clocks, jewelry, and other articles mentioned. Mrs. Linthicum was the widow of Gabriel D. Clark when she married J. Charles Linthicum. It is also alleged that on November 1, 1896, she came into possession of $2,000, and on November 9, 1896 of $300. belonging to said Clark, "but she has omitted to return said money, either to any inventory or list of debts filed in this court, but concealed and withholds the same." The petition prays that Helen A. Linthicum be required to bring into court the articles and money, together with all property belonging to the estate of Gabriel D. Clark, and that she and Gabriel D. Clark, Jr., her co-executor, be required to return an additional inventory of the said articles and money and of all other assets omitted. A citation was then asked for against Mrs. Linthicum and Gabriel D. Clark, Jr., executors, and Mr. and Mrs.. Linthicum individually. Gabriel D. Clark, Jr., filed an answer admitting that the articles named in the petitioned belonged to their testator, and that since his death Mrs. Linthicum has had them, and, as she claimed them as her own he did not have them included in the inventory. He also says he is informed that the two sums of money came into possession of Mrs. Clark, but he does not know what disposition she made of them, and submits to the passage of such order by the court as to it may seem proper. Mrs. Linthicum as executrix and individually with her husband, filed an answer in which they deny the concealment of any articles and also deny that any silverware, clocks and jewelry in their possession belonged to the estate. They admitted that they had a few articles belonging to the estate which she has retained, on the authority of her co-executor, at the appraised value, as she supposed she had the right to do; but, upon being informed that they would have to be sold at public auction sent them to the auction rooms. They answered the allegations as to the $2300 by alleging that Helen A. Clark collected the two sums of money during the lifetime of Gabriel D. Clark, at his request, which she paid to him, and they were by him expended and disposed of in his lifetime. IN an amended answer they admit having possession of a buffet and four busts, which she asked be allowed to her as part of the $75 a widow is entitled to under section 299 of article 93 of the Code, and alleged that certain jewelry, silverware, and articles named therein were the property of Mrs. Linthicum, and as she claims title to them, the orphan's court had no jurisdiction over the matter. Mr. and Mrs. Linthicum filed a motion to dismiss the petition so far as the same is against them as individuals and as far as they are concerned therein in their individual capacity. The orphan's court passed an order dismissing the petition for want of jurisdiction and requiring the petitioners to pay the costs. From that order an appeal was taken by the petitioners to the superior court of Baltimore City, which court reversed the order of the orphan's court, and remanded the case for further proceedings. From the decree of the superior court this appeal was taken, and the question before us is whether the orphan's court had jurisdiction. If it had, then the decision of the superior court on the appeal to it was final, and cannot be reviewed by us; but, if the orphan's court had no jurisdiction to entertain the petition, then the superior court had none to review its decision, and hence an appeal to this court would be proper. (Gibson V. Cook, 62 Md. 256), although, when the orphan's court has jurisdiction under sections 238 and 239 of article 93 of the Code, the appeal authorized by section 240 to the circuit court for a county or the superior court of Baltimore city "is exclusive of all other appeals so that in no event can an appeal in any such case be taken to this court under section 39 (now 58 ) of article 5 of the code, Hignutt v. Cranor, 62 Md. 216….The appeal will therefore be dismissed. Appeal dismissed, Mr. and Mrs. Linthicum to pay the costs in this court.
-Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals of Maryland, Maryland Court of Appeals, John Murphy Publisher, 1906,p. 844-845
Mary E. Polk et . al., Appls.
r. Helen A. Linthicum…
March 23 1905
Appeal by plaintiffs from a judgment of the Circuit Court for Baltimore City refusing to remove a trustee. Reversed. The facts are stated in the opinion. Messrs. James P. Gorter and hZ. Arthur Stump for the appellants:
The behavior of Mrs. Linthicum is very much below the standard that the courts of this state expect in the performance of the responsible and delicate duties pertaining to the office of trustee……Page, J., delivered the opinion of the court:
This is an appeal from the order of the lower court dismissing the petition of the appellants for the removal of the appellee from the trust created by the last will and testament of the late Gabriel D. Clark. The decedent left, surviving him a widow (the appellee in this case) and two children by a former wife (a son, Gabriel D. Clark, Jr., and a daughter, Mary, who with her husband Lucius C. Polk, are the appellants). By his last will, made in the year 1892, he distributed a large estate, except as to a small portion donated to certain charitable purposes, among the several members of his family. For his wife he made an ample provision. He gave her his residence and contents, and one half of his personal estate amounting to more than a million and a half of dollars, for her life or widowhood, and one third of the residue of his realty for life. All the residue of his estate including that portion that might remain after the termination of the estate given to the wife for life or for widowhood, he divided among his son and daughter. The son took his share absolutely, but that of his daughter was given to his widow, his sun, and the Mercantile Trust Company of Baltimore, in trust to hold and manage the same, and pay over the income thereof to Mrs. Polk, "into her hands and not into another. " for her life, and from her death to his grandson, if he be then living, during his natural life, and then for the benefit of his child or children, until the youngest child shall have reached twenty--one years of age, when the trust is to close, and the property shall vest absolutely in the said children. In the event of his grandson dying without leaving child or descendant, the property is to go to the children of the testator's brother. He died on the 8th of December 1896, and in June, 1898 the court assumed jurisdiction of the trust.
The appellee and the descendent were married in 1883. From the time of the marriage up to his death, it seems not to be questioned that their intercourse was harmonious and agreeable. From the period of Mr. Clark's death, there arose causes of estrangement between the widow and the children, which have brought about much bad feeling, and broken up all the pleasant relations that may have heretofore subsisted between them. We do not deem it necessary, in the view we take of the ease, to enter in to a discussion of the nature of these causes, nor to make any attempt to determine how far the suspicion and distrust the children seem to entertain for the appellee may be justified by the circumstances as they are disclosed by the record. It will be sufficient to observe that in fact ever since Mr. Clark's death these causes have operated to bring about a most unfortunate state of bad feeling in the family, and to develop differences respecting the conduct of the trust which have kept the estate in constant litigation. The appellee, it is true, has testified that she has never entertained "one moment of ill will against one of them" (meaning Mr. Clark and his sister) ; and it may be conceded that the appellee has testified with entire candor and honesty. But notwithstanding this, it seems improbable if not impossible, that, under all the circumstances of the case, she can ever resume with them the kindly and sympathetic relations that existed during the lifetime of the testator, and are so necessary for the successful conduct of a trust like the one under this will. It may not unreasonably be assumed that the testator made selection of his widow not only because of his entire confidence in her judgment and integrity, but also because he knew of her satisfactory relations with Mrs. Polk. He must have sought not only that his daughter's share of his estate should be wisely and honestly controlled but that her dealings with those managing the trust might be through the medium of the appellee, whose affectionate solicitude for her comfort and welfare would soften to some extent, at least, the burden of having to submit to the will of others. These remarks are not intended as the statement of a sufficient ground for a removal. for the reason that it seems to be well settled that mere unfriendliness of the cestui que trust towards the trustee is not a sufficient ground per se for the removal of the latter…..cases cited…But these reflections, we think, enable us to approach the consideration fo other features of the case in our judgment of more importance. The last will of the testator was made and executed in the year 1892, four years prior to his death. It evinces a solicitude for the welfare of each member of his family as well as an ernest desire to maintain an absolute equality among his children. He intended it is true, to guard the share of Mrs. Polk by means of the trust, for reasons of which we are not informed, but which we must assume were inspired by the expectation that it would operate for her benefit. But he bestowed upon each of his children an equal share of the estate. To the widow he was extremely liberal. He gave her a life interest in more than one half of his estate. It included the dwelling and contents, and an income estimated by one of the counsel to amount to more that $50,000 per annum. He seems therefore, to have regarded the interest and probability the wisdom of all the members of his family. At the time he selected his widow as one of the trustees for his daughter, he must have believed that the agreeable relations between her and his children would continue to exist after he was gone. He probably did anticipate that she would remarry within less than a year and a half after his death, and thereupon would be broken up the home where they had so happily resided, nor that there would spring up so soon estrangements of serious character and far reaching effect. His object in joining her in the management of the trust could not have been to supply the business skill needed for the successful control of so large an estate, for that was already supplied by the other trustees. What else could have been his motive, but that there might be at his daughter's side a safe, agreeable, and sympathetic medium through which she could convey her wishes respecting the trust estate to those that had it in charge. Her position on the board of trustees seems to be an additional proof of the fact that he intended the trust estate primarily for the benefit only of his daughter, to be enjoyed by her in the most agreeable as well as the most advantageous manner. It is apparent, also, from the face of the will that the scheme of the testator was after providing liberally for his widow to so dispose of all his property in such a manner that it should eventually go down in the line of his own blood. The testimony also shows that he was exceedingly solicitous that his dispositions should be acceptable to his wife. He trusted her, talked with her about his will, read it to her, and she promised him to do what he wished for her to do. Mr. Snowden, who prepared the will, testified that after the will was executed the appellee "was called into the parlor, and Mr. Clark requested me to read it to her, which I did, very carefully and deliberately, and he asked her if she understood it, and whether she approved of it, to which she replied that she did." Notwithstanding this solemn declaration on her part, she renounced the will, and elected to take in lieu thereof her dower or legal estate. By this act she took out from the operation of the trust a very large amount-probably several hundred thousand of dollars-and diverted it to her own use. We are not now questioning in any manner her right thus to renounce, or what the moral aspect of the act may be, when considered in connection with the statements and promises made by her to her late husband, but we regard it now only as a fact to be considered in connection with other matters in relation to the trust. Moreover, it appears from the record that less than one year and a half after her husband's death she remarried and ceased not only to be on good terms with her stepchildren, but all intercourse of every kind with his family ceased. It is clear that by these acts she destroyed a very important part of the scheme of the testator. His property has been diverted from the channel in which he desired it to go, and the trust has been depleted to the extent of many thousands of dollars. Moreover, the proof shows that her co trustee, Mr. Clark, entertains feelings of such a powerful character towards her that proper co-operation between them in the business of the trust has become impossible, and also that the beneficiary has become charged with distrust of her, founded upon her dealings with the property of the testator, so that for the future there can no longer be personal relations between them. Finally, whatever amount of blame may or may not attach to the appellee, if any, there can be no doubt her participation in the trust has for many years operated to keep the estate in litigation, at much expense; and it is not unreasonable to expect that, if she remain, there may be other recurring matters that will develop still further litigation for many years longer. In addition to this, we think itt is clear that the testator created this trust for the benefit of his daughter, and selected his wife to be one of the trustees, not for her personal advantage, but for that of the cestui que trust. His will ought to and must be respected: but it is not for a moment to be even suspected that he would have appointed anyone for the performance of the duty of trustee for the benefit of his daughter whose first act would be the depletion of the trust by renouncing his will, and thereby diminishing the value of the trust estate, and to that extent destroying his cherished hopes nad wishes, and afterwards, having remarried, became so obnoxious to his children that they are unwilling to have dealings with her. These things show a want of fidelity to the wishes of the testator, and render the person so affected unfit to keep the financial prosperity of his daughter in her hands. In addition to this, we think it undoubtedly was Mr. Clark's desire that his daughter should not only receive her income promptly, but that she should be mad comfortable in the reception of it as well as in its enjoyment. The mere fact of dissention between the cestui que trust and the trustee is not, it is true, a sufficient ground for removal of a trustee….cases cited arguments made……We do not rest our decision in this case upon the mere fact of inharmonious relations between the appellee and Mrs. Polk, or between the appellee and her co trustee: but we are of the opinion that these and other facts stated in the record, and particularly that she has placed herself in a position of hostility to the plans of the descendent, where by the trust fund has been materially depleted, convince us that she is not a proper person to longer act as a co trustee of the fund, and should therefore be removed.
Order reversed and cause remanded, that an order may be passed removing the appellee from the trusteeship; the appellee to pay costs in this court and below..- Lawyers' Reports Annotated., Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company, Lawyers' Co-operative Pub. Co.,Publisher, 1906, p.920.
Mrs. Linthicum Wins
Gets Articles Of Her Former Husband, Late Gabriel D. Clark.
By the verdict of a jury in the Superior Court yesterday Mrs. J. Charles Linthicum, former wife of the late Gabriel D. Clark, was declared to be the owner of all the silverware and most of the other articles which it was alleged by Mr. Clark's daughter Mrs. Luclus C. Polk, and here husband and son belong to Mr. Clark's estate and should have been included in the inventory filed by Mr. Clark's widow and son, who are the executors. The verdict was also in Mrs. Linthicum's favor as to $2,000 which it was also alleged belonged to Mr. Clark's estate.
Of the long list of articles claimed to belong to Mr. Clark's estate the jury by the verdict excluded all except a musical decanter, a painting of chickens by Tate, a black marble French clock, the ornaments and vases which were in the parlor of Mr. Clark's house, a picture of a gray mare, an inlaid iron table, a razor and a garnet and diamond ring with the name Margaret. Mrs. Linthicum claimed that these articles had been given to her by her former husband. Mr. Clark, as well as the silverware, jewelry and other property which the jury decided belonged to her.
The case was tried on issues made up in the Orphan's Court. H Arthur Stump and James P. Gorter appeared for the plaintiffs and Thomas R. Clendinen and Enoch Harlan for the defendants.
-Baltimore Sun, May 13,1904, Vol. CXXXIV, Issue 179, p. 7.
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Commemoration Interesting Memorials and Exciting Events!
|For text of the Congressional Memorial
"The late Representative J. Charles Linthicum will be honored tomorrow by the dedication of a monument to his memory in Druid Ridge Cemetery in the presence of his wife and congressional, diplomatic and religious leaders. Expected to be present at the dedication at 3 p. m. are Senators Tydings and Goldsborough, Governor Ritchie, Representative Sol Bloom, Bishop Edward T. Helfenstein, of the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland, Dr. Arthur Kinsolving, Ulysses F. Espaillat, councilor for Santo Domingo; Wilbur J. Carr, assistant secretary of State, and Keith Miller of the State Department. The late representative served the Fourth District of Maryland in 11 sessions until his death last October 5. He was chairman of the House Foreign Relations Committee and a leader of the wet bloc in the fight against the eighteenth amendment in the lower house.
Ceremonies tomorrow will mark the first anniversary of his death. The monument is being erected by Mrs. Linthicum. (
For location of the graves see below)
-"Shaft Erected to Li
nthicum-Notable Group to Attend Dedication Today in Baltimore.", The Washington Post., October 5, 1933, pg.12.
Inscription: In Loving Memory of John Charles Linthicum Beloved Husband of Helen A. Linthicum Born November 26th 1867 Entered into Life Eternal on the 5th day of October 1932, Member of the United States House of Representatives from 1910 to 1932 Chairman of the Committee On Foreign Affairs, Co-Author of the Bill of 1924 for the Improvement of the For3eign Service an Active and Inspiring Leader in the commission on Foreign Service Buildings. A Patriotic and Trusted Servant of the American People, "The Souls of the Righteous are in the Hand of God- Wisdom III I
Helen A. Linthicum, Memorial Chapel, St. Paul's School For Boys Baltimore
Mrs. Linthicum's will stipulated that a collection of her jewelry should be auctioned to benefit the St. Paul's School for Boys. Specifically the will called for the construction of a chapel. A fire in the 1990s destroyed the chapel but the altar and baptismal font survive and are proudly displayed at the present time on the lower level of the new chapel of the St. Paul's School for Boys, Baltimore.
Photo of the chapel: From= We Have Kept the Faith, Angelo Otterbein, Source: Laura Kurz, St. Paul's School.
Greenridge Cemetery Saratoga Springs New York Location of Helen A. Linthicum's Perry relatives graves.
Perry Grave Information
Perry, Harriet Sadler, Wife of John Leland Perry,1819,1886, Lot and Area: C - 044 Old
Perry, John Leland, Husb of Harriet Sadler,1814/11/04,1873/11/27, Lot and Area: C - 044,Old
The Portrait (s?)
Ritchie To Present Portrait of Linthicum
House Committee On Foreign Affairs to Receive Painting Of Late Chairman Today.
(Washington Bureau of the Sun) Washington, Jan.22- Gov. Albert C. Ritchie tomorrow will present to the House Foreign Affairs Committee a portrait of the late J. Charles Linthicum, who at the time of his death last fall was chairman of that committee. Mr. Linthicum represented the Fourth district of Maryland in Congress for twenty-two years.
Represent McReynolds (Dem. Tenn.,) chairman of the committee, on behalf of that group will accept the portrait, painted by Thomas C., Corner, the Baltimore artist. Bishop James E. Freeman, of St. Alban's Protestant Episcopal Cathedral will pronounce the invocation. The ceremonies will be witnessed by Mrs. Linthicum, the members of the committee and the Maryland delegation in Congress. A reception in honor of Governor Ritchie will be held after the ceremonies.- Baltimore Sun., Jan. 23, 1933.
Ritchie presents Linthicum Canvas
Portrait of Marylander Is Accepted by Sol Bloom for Foreign Affairs Group. Painted by T. C. Corner, Governor Pays Tribute to Late Congressman For Work As Chairman of Committee., (Washington Bureau of the Sun) Washington, Jan. 22- High tribute was paid to the memory and services of the latte Representative J. Charles Linthicum by Governor Ritchie in presenting a portrait of the Marylander to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House. Mr.. Linthicum at the time of his death was chairman of the committee.
"I deem it a privilege of doing honor to a very warm friend. We at home are appreciative of his service, his integrity and blameless life. We were hopeful when he became chairman of this committee that he would have an opportunity to do further constructive work."
Painted by Baltimorean
The portrait which was executed by Thomas C. Corner, of Baltimore was accepted by Representative Sol Bloom (Dem. N.Y.) ranking member of the committee, in the absence of Representative Sam D. McReynolds of Tennessee, who was unable to be present.
"In accepting this portrait it does not require a picture to remind us of the great work Mr. Linthicum has done in this committee." said Mr. Bloom. "It was his desire and wish that the United States be represented in foreign countries in a fitting manner and his work as a member of the committee and as a member of the Foreign Building Commission in providing suitable buildings in foreign lands will remain a monument to his efforts."
Bishop Gives Invocation
Bishop James E. Freeman of St. Albans; Protestant Episcopal Cathedral, pronounced the invocation after the presentation.
A number of officials of the State Department and representatives of foreign countries attended the ceremonies, including Rudolph Leitner counselor of the German Embassy and Dr. Alfred Sze, Minister form the Chinese Republic.
Following the ceremony a reception was held in the Speakers' lobby of the House where more than a hundred Democratic and Republican members left the floor to meet Governor Ritchie.
After the reception Governor Ritchie was the guest of honor at a luncheon given by the Maryland delegation in the Speakers' dining room.-The Baltimore Sun.,Jan. 24.1933
"Governor presents portrait of Linthicum, Gov. Albert C. Ritchie of Maryland presented to the foreign relations committee of the House a portrait of the late J. Charles Linthicum, representative from Maryland, who was long chairman of the committee, under Republican administrations. In the group are, left to right-Bishop James E. Freedman, of Washington Cathedral; Mrs. Linthicum, widow of the representative; Gov. Ritchie, Representative Sol Bloom, of New York, and Senator Millard Tydings of Maryland. The portrait is hanging behind the group."
-"Governor Presents Portrait of Linthicum.", The Washington Post., Jan. 24, 1933, pg. 3, (Includes photo not available)
This is the Portrait which is to be found at Towson University presented by Sweetser Linthicum.
"Linthicum portrait finds "resting place" at Towson State University. A portrait of former Re. J. Charles Linthicum-a major backer of making "The Star Spangled Banner" the national anthem-will find a permanent home tomorrow when it's donated to Towson State University.
Just three years after the Linthicum family saved the portrait from the auction block, it will be donated for display in the alumni house.
"We're all getting old," said Sweetser Linthicum Jr.,86 (?) as, the congressman's nephew, "Next thing you know you're floating around, and someone will be selling it at an estate sale or it will be sitting in an auction house. I want to get things organized and have it at its final resting place."
J. Charles Linthicum, who was born Nov. 26, 1867, in one of his family's homes at "Turkey Hill" in Linthicum Heights, served in congress from 1911 until his death in 1932. The portrait was thought to have been the one that hung in the halls of Congress.
By chance, the family learned through a friend that the portrait by French artist Theo Dube was going to be auctioned off by Harris Auctions of Baltimore City.
:They didn't tell us a thing, it had a beautiful frame on it but it was in bad shape," he said.
A whole famly crew went up for the auction, including Sweetser Linthcium and in law Paul Wildman..
Mr.Wildman, an artist, headed the bidding and bought the portrait. Later he retouched it ans made a special frame for the picture to replace the ornate, but broken original one.
The painting was placed above the deep read couch on the red brocade wall in Sweetser Linhicum's home on Sweetser Road in Linthicum.
But tomorrow, Dr. Hoke L. Smith president of towson State University is hosting a special reception honoring the Linthicum family.
Mr. Linthicum and his brother Seth Linthicum J. of Tucson Arizona chose Towson State for the portrait's final resting place because of the congressman's special attachment to the university. It will hang in the alumni house.
Not only did the congressman graduate from the university- when it was known as the State Normal School- but he was instrumental to relocating the school to Towson.
During his long political career J. Charles Linthicum helped obtain state approval for the construction at the new campus.
"Uncle Charley" and his wife Helen gave a lot of money to the University for Scholarships. Mr. Linthicum said. The university named a building after them in 1968.
After teaching in Anne Arundel County for several years J. Charles Linthicum began his political career in the Maryland House of Delegates in 1903.
-Capital, The | Annapolis, Maryland | Wednesday, April 07, 1993 | Page 16
The Memorial Window
"Is Memorial to Former Congressman, A memorial window in memory of the late John Charles Linthicum, once member of Congress from Maryland, was dedicated at a special service in the Church of the Epiphany yesterday afternoon. Mr. Linthicum attended the church during his service in Congress, and the window is a gift of his widow. Assisting the rector, Dr. Barney Phillips, in the service were the Right Rev. Edward T. Helfenstein, Bishop of Maryland, and the Rev. Dr. Arthur B. Kinsolving, rector of St. Paul's Church in Baltimore. The window, the work of the D'Ascenzo Studios, of Philadelphia, is done in a medieval style of symbolism, and depicts the ministry of Christ. The topmost medallion gives the Greek letters Chi Rho, the symbol of Christ the Anointed. The rosette below is the baptism of Jesus by S. John the Baptist in the Jordan River. The two panels show St. Matthew and St. Mark, while scrolls behind them give the opening words of their Gospels. Beside the two apostles are the Man and the Lion, symbols characteristic of the two. The inscription of dedication at the bottom of the window reads, "To the Glory of God and in loving memory of John Charles Linthicum by his loving wife, Helen A. Linthicum
-"Gift Window is Dedicated.", The Washington Post. Oct. 6, 1934, pg.2.
Left. St. Matthew holds a quill, signifying him as an author. Flanking his head are the opening lines of his gospel, "The Book of thee Generation of Jesus Christ." Before answering the call to follow Jesus as an apostle, Matthew was a tax collector. To the lower right is Matthew's symbol in art, a winged man a reference to the fact that his gospel highlights the human side of Jesus Christ. Right: Flanking St. Mark's head are the opening lines of his gospel, "The Beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Mark and his family were converted to Christianity by St. Peter, and as a youth he might well have been with Peter at Gethsemane. Depicted in the lower right is St. Mark's symbol, a winged lion. The lion, as king of the beasts, represents the royal character of Christ portrayed in Mark's gospel.
Upper: In the rose window, John the Baptist uses a shell to baptize Jesus in the River Jordan. The Holy Spirit, symbolized by a dove, descends from above. In the uppermost light is the chi roh, a superimposing of the first to letters of the name Christ in Greek and one of he earliest symbols used by Christians. Artist: Nicola D' Ascenzo ( D' Ascenzo Studios)
Memorial: The Hon. John Charles Linthicum (1867-1932)...The window was given by his wife, Helen A. Linthicum. A special dedicatory service was held on October 5, 1934, the second anniversary of Congressman Linthicum's death. One of the four officiating clergy was the Rt. Rev. Edward T. Helfenstein, Bishop of Maryland.
-Let There Be Light! A guide to Epiphany's Windows. Tripp Jo0nes, 2007, The Church of the Epiphany, Washington D.C.
Bells Linthicum United Methodist Church
"A" I give and devise unto "The Linthicum Heights Methodist Protestant Church, Incorporated", the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars ($10.000), to reconstruct or change the present tower of said church to accommodate a ten-bell chime (of cast-bell type), and to purchase and install such ten-bell chime therein, provided that should the said sum of Ten Thousand Dollars be not sufficient for such purchase, then I direct that the same be by said church invested until said sum, together with interest thereon, be sufficient, and I direct hat bells shall have cast therein, the following "Erected by John Charles Linthicum, to the glory of God, and in honor of his wife, Helen A. Linthicum", and I direct that the present bell be made a part of said chime
- "Last Will and Testament of J. Charles Linthicum." No. 40, Case No. 482, File No. 16408, Baltimore City, Maryland, and Folio 28, WmB133-69 4/28/33, June 18, 1932.
"Money via John Charles Linthicum's will funds 15 metal-bell carillon. Bells are inscribed "to the glory of God and in honor of his wife Helen A. Linthicum." (Helen A. Linthicum had earlier donated a bell to the "Grey Stone Church" formerly Linthicum Methodist dedicated to her niece Mrs. Virginia Perry Dillon
-Sweetser Linthicum, 1991, The Life of Congressman, John Charles Linthicum. p.4.
Watch and listen to the bells ring!
The sanctuary’s 105-foot steeple contains the 15-bell Linthicum Carillon, the gift of the late Mr. J. Charles Linthicum, in memory of his wife.-Source: Linthicum United Methodist Church web page.
Linthicum United Methodist Church showing bell tower.
Current Bell ringing Electonics
Bells Keyboard nest to organ
Plaques Linthicum United Methodist Church
A U.S. Navy Ship?
O'Conor Wants Ship to be Named After Linthicum. Senator Herbert R. O'Conor has made formal request to Admiral E. L. Cochrane, Administrator, U.S. Maritime Administration, that one of the new Maritime Commission vessels to be constructed be named after former Congressman J.. Charles Linthicum of Maryland. In his recommendation to the maritime Administration he cited the long service of the Congressman to Maryland and to the country ad the fact that among his many accomplishments was the legislative act through which the Star Spangled Banner became the official National Anthem….
-The Capitol., Annapolis, Md. , Tuesday, May 22,1951, p.4.
(A check of the official U.S. Navy
index of ship names did not turn up any ship named for Linthicum, Charles
Linthicum or John Charles Linthicum
Stone Dedicated to Helen In Washington Cathedral
The Maryland State Society, D.A.R., placed a stone in the National Cathedral, which is being erected at Mt. Saint Alban, Washington, D.C., in her honor. This was conducted with appropriate ceremony, the Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman, D.D., presiding.
-Luckett, Margie, H., Maryland Women., V. I, Baltimore, Maryland, 1931, pp.248-253
Linthicum Hall Towson University, Towson, Maryland.
Dedicated to J. Charles Linthicum in 1968
J. Charles Linthicum
The Honorable J. Charles Linthicum a member of an old Maryland family was a graduate of our school in 1886. He became a member of Congress in 1911and served twenty- two years. From the 62nd through the 72nd Congress, representing the Fourth District of Maryland.
When Governor Crothers appointed in 1910 the members of the Maryland State Normal School Building Commission, Mr. Linthicum was selected as Chairman. He served in this capacity from 19100 until the school occupied its new campus in Towson in 1915. Under the supervision of the Commission, which he headed, the present site for the institution was selected, the architect appointed and the new buildings constructed.
Mrs. Linthicum shared her husband's interest in Towson and contributed to the school a sum for student scholarships which still serves its purpose as the Helen A. Linthicum Scholarship Fund. Upon her death, she willed to the school a fine oil portrait of her husband which will be placed in the building named after him.
-Towson State College, Towson, Maryland, Dedication Program for Linthicum Hall and Bufdick Hall, Saturday, November Second, Nineteen Hundered Sixty-Eight at Ten A.M., Burdick Hall.
Park and Monument in Linthicum, Maryland
Linthicum: Park dedication Saturday in congressman's honor
CRAIG Assistant Editor
One of Linthicum's most famous citizens will be honored Saturday when state and local government officials dedicate the new J. Charles Linthicum Memorial Park as part of the community's centennial celebration.
Linthicum served in Congress from March 4, 1911, until his death in
October 1932. In 1918, he introduced legislation that eventually would
make "The Star-Spangled Banner" the national anthem of the United States.
-Source: The Maryland
Gazette (Photo: Conrad Bladey)
Editor's Note- I strongly support the monument and wonderful park. It has lots of potential for the preservation and appreciation of local history. The information on the monument however, should be extended by an additional inscription which refers to Linthicum's life work so often mentioned in news articles and in his obituaries and memorials. That is his crusade against prohibition. He did after all launch the first amendment that came to the floor of congress to overturn prohibition. In addition to the extension of the text on the monument or creation of an additional monument or marker the rules of the park = this park in particular, only should be changed to allow the legal consumption of alcohol if not year round then on the day that the Beck-Linthicum amendment was voted on in Congress. Anyone interested in this project can contact me at: email@example.com
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March 14 2009
Welcome table with refreshments in shopping center lot.
Memorial and beer can wreath.
Video of ceremony from youtube!
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This time we hope to get a parade permit and have a marching band from Towson etc...If your group is interested in attending let me know
We are looking for a sponsor bar to provide special deals for parade participants after the parade maybe 1930s beer prices! e.mail us firstname.lastname@example.org
Girls are encouraged to wear costume jewelry and roses in honor of Mrs. Linthicum
1930s dress is encouraged
1930s vehicles are encouraged
Artcars will take part
Participants can dress up with I'm Linthicum tee shirts from our on-line store Remember the Linthicums with great gift items-tote bag, mugs, pins etc... Build Community spirit! Remember our history! click here for the store.
March 14, 1932
On March 14, 1932, the
House voted on the question of bringing out from the
-Straw Votes: A Study of Political Prediction - Page 156 by Claude Everett Robinson, Columbia University Council for Research in the Social Sciences - Elections - 1932 - 203 pages
Yes indeed! NO! It is not a parade- It is a commemorative gathering. We will gather first at Linthicum Shopping Center (Linthicum Heights 21090) to obtain maps and a downtown speech or so....and to find parking. Then a second gathering at the park where parking is limited. The park is only a few blocks away but is not on any existing maps as yet and has limited parking so we thought it would be helpful to hand out maps at the shopping center first. At the park there will be a wreath laying and maybe a speech or so....a commemoration....All to recognize the importance of our rights and the man that started the legislation rolling which ended in the repeal of prohibition. Even though Linthicum was a tea totaler (In his own words: "A temperance man"- he knew the value of our rights."Representatives J. Charles Linthicum and Vincent Palmisano and former Representative John Philip Hill favor a beer parade in Baltimore such as Mayor Walker plans for New York. Walter H . Buck president of the Baltimore Association Against the Prohibition Amendment; Edgar Allan Poe Jr., head of the Crusaders here, and other civic and political leaders sowed interest in the idea of a national demonstration. Mr. Buck explained that his association was interested in repeal of the prohibition amendment rather than modification, and expressed regret that the Baltimore Association of Commerce recently refused to follow the lead of similar bodies in Chicago and New York,, which passed resolutions calling on Congress to pass a bill making beer available for tax revenue. Mr. Poe said he felt sure that the members of the Crusaders would be willing to march here in a beer parade. But in the absence of official advice on the matter from the Crusaders' New York headquarters he was unwilling to commit himself.
-"Linthicum for Beer Parade.", The New York Times.,April 17, 1932, pg.2.
The parade will be a good civic experience for young and old. A good chance to learn local history and to take part in the commemoration of our local Patriot Charles Linthicum. All are invited to contribute. The commemoration will take place on Sunday March 14 to the date the amendment reached the floor of the Congress.
The Gathering will begin at the Linthicum shopping center (Linthicum Heights, 21090) to find parking and get maps and end at the Linthicum Memorial in the Charles Linthicum Park. Anyone wanting to take part can contact me at email@example.com
There will be no alcohol involved, at the shopping center or in the park at the ending. There will be a gathering at a place to be announced after the commemoration where our freedoms can be exercised.
We welcome one and all to participate. A beer can wreath will be laid at the base of the monument.
The commemoration will proceed in all weather!
Watch this space for further details!
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