The Wollensak Reel to Reel Magnetic Tape Recorder

Welcome to my Wollensak Tape Recorder Model T 1500 This is a  two track recorder.  It is hoped that this page can be a useful source for information concerning the Wollensak reel to reel magnetic tape recorder. Wollensak manufactured reel to reel tape recorders until 1978. I am always looking for more information and corrections. Please contact me at cbladey@verizon.net

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The Main Menu

History of the Reel to Real Magnetic Tape System

Top songs of the time

History of the Period

Activity

Sources for restoration information and parts.

Bibliography

Links

Tour of my Wollensak

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History

Marvin Camras

History of Magnetic Tape

 

Marvin Camras

Born Jan 1 1916 - Died Jun 23 1995

Patent Number(s) 2,351,004

Marvin Camras' inventions are used in modern magnetic tape and wire recorders, including high frequency bias, improved recording heads, wire and tape material, magnetic sound for motion pictures, multitrack tape machines, stereophonic sound reproduction, and video tape recording.

Invention Impact

* 1930 - Bell Telephone Laboratories initiates a major research effort in magnetic tape recording under the direction of Clarence N. Hickman. By 1931, prototypes of designs are completed for a steel tape telephone answering machine, a central-office message announcer, an endless loop voice-training machine, and a portable, reel-to-reel recorder for general-purpose sound recording. None of these enter production except for the voice trainer, which proves a failure.

* 1931 - Blattner sells an experimental steel tape recorder to the BBC, but goes bankrupt the same year. Meanwhile, the British Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company purchases the U.K. rights to the Stille patents. The BBC and Marconi jointly produce several steel tape recorders and use them in the new BBC Empire short-wave radio service by 1932.

A steel tape recorder "Stahltonbandmaschine", manufactured by the C. Lorenz company in Germany in the early to mid-1930s. It was designed by S. J. Begun, later of Brush Development Co. fame and widely used by the German RRG broadcasting authority in the 1930s, before they adopted the AEG magnetophon.

* 1932 - AEG, a large German electrical manufacturer, purchases the patent rights of the independent inventor Fritz Pfleumer, who after 1928 patented a system for recording on paper coated with a magnetisable, powdered steel layer. AEG sets about designing a tape recorder, while it collaborates with the German chemical firm I. G. Farben to develop a suitable tape. I. G. Farben experiments with tape coated with carbonyl iron powder, made under a proprietary process.

* Circa 1933-35 - Echophon company, another licensee of the Stille patents, develops the Textophon, a dictation machine using steel wire. Echophon is later purchased by ITT and made part of the subsidiary firm C. Lorenz, a manufacturer of telephone equipment. C. Lorenz, with the help of engineer Semi J. Begun, later markets a steel tape recorder that finds wide use in European telephone authorities for telephone recording purposes and by German radio networks for mobile recording.

* 1935 - An improved AEG recorder, dubbed the "Magnetophon," is demonstrated by recording the London Philharmonic Orchestra. The RRG (the German radio authority) begins to use the Magnetophon for broadcasting, replacing the earlier C. Lorenz recorders.

* 1938 - S. J. Begun of C. Lorenz leaves Germany to start a new career in the United States. In 1939 he takes a job at the Brush Development Company of Cleveland, Ohio.

* 1939-41 - At the Brush Development Company, S. J. Begun develops steel tape and coated-paper tape recorders. Between 1942 and 1945 the company designs and successfully sells to the military various types of recorders utilizing plated media in the form of tapes, disks, and wire.

* 1939 - Marvin Camras at The Armour Research Foundation of the Armour Institute of Technology invents an improved wire recorder. The Institute succeeds in selling several thousand to the American army and navy, and after the war sells licenses to dozens of American and European manufacturers to make wire recorders.

1945 - American and British technical investigators "discover" the Magnetophon in Luxembourg, France, and other places formerly occupied by the Germans. By Spring, these investigators begin gathering information about the production of tape recorders and tape, and the U.S. Department of Commerce publishes the information. The U.S. Alien Property Custodian seizes German patent rights on the technology.

* 1945 - Former serviceman John T. Mullin demonstrates a captured Magnetophon to the Institute of Radio Engineers. Performer Bing Crosby works with Mullin to use the Magnetophon for radio broadcasts on ABC

* 1945 - Three former Armour Research Foundations employees start Magnecord Corporation in Chicago to make a high quality wire recorder. Plans for the wire recorder are soon dropped, and the group in 1949 introduces a tape recorder, the PT-6. The independent corporate life of Magnecord ends in 1957 when it is purchased by Midwestern Instruments, Inc.

* 1946-47 - The first Amour Research Foundation- licensed wire recorders appear in the American market, manufactured by Pentron, Pierce Wire Recorder Corporation, and others. Brush Development company introduces its Soundmirror paper tape recorder developed in 1939-40. A Brush licensee, Amplifier Corp. of America, introduces the Magnephone tape recorder

* 1947 - Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing introduces a line of sound recording tapes, including type #100, a paper based tape, and type #110, a plastic based tape. Type #111, a plastic based tape with an improved oxide, becomes the industry standard.

* 1947 - Mullin demonstrates magnetophones to Bing Crosby Enterprises in June. NBC refuses to record his show and Bing moves to ABC with Philco sponsor in the fall, brings with him Mullin's magnetophones to tape original show and dub to 16-inch transcription disc for broadcast

* 1947 - Rangertone Inc. of New Jersey introduces a professional tape recorder based on the Magnetophon.

* 1948 - Ampex corporation produces its first professional tape recorder, the Model 200. These are used for Bing Crosby show #27 along with 3M Scotch 111 gamma ferric oxide coated tape.

* 1949-50 - Magnecord introduces two-channel tape recorders and begins making stereo recordings of music for demonstration purposes.

1948-49 Sony corporation begins its efforts to design a tape recorder.

* 1958 - The same year that stereo LP's appear on the RCA-Victor label, RCA introduces stereo tape-- in a cartridge format requiring a special player. The system flops almost immediately, though its production continues by a licensee, Bell Sound, until 1964.

* 1962-64 - Phillips company of the Netherlands introduces the Compact Cassette, a portable tape recorder using a small cartridge.

* 1965 - Ford and Mercury, in conjunction with Motorola and RCA-Victor records, introduce the "Stereo-8" (or "eight track") format tape players as an option on certain luxury models. The medium becomes the first truly successful form of recorded music on tape in the consumer market. 8-track tapes began to be discontinued in the early 1980s.

* 1969-70 - DuPont and BASF begin offering chromium dioxide recording tapes.

* 1978 - Sony introduces the first digital recorders. These were professional, open reel PCM recorders for the studio

* 1984 - Sales of recorded audio cassettes exceed LP sales for the first time.

 

 

History of Magnetic Tape

"The tape came up to speed, then, opening theme -- Crosby: Blue of the Night; applause; introductory patter -- Crosby and Carpenter; song -- Crosby: My Heart is a Hobo; applause."

"Murdo McKenzie signaled me to 'cut.' I pressed the stop button. There were surely no more than two seconds of silence, which seem more like minutes to me, and then a shower of compliments. One small machine, one of a pair, side-by-side on a makeshift table -- the only two of their kind in the United States arranged to record and reproduce magnetic tape with such remarkable fidelity -- had, in a listening demonstration lasting almost exactly five minutes, upset the entire future of sound recording in this country."

Jack Mullin describing  the demonstration of the Magnetophone tape recorder to Bing Crosby in August 1947 at the NBC/ABC Hollywood studios.

The Beginning

The BBC had its origins in the 1940s but the development of tape recording gave it success.  Tape was used  in Germany on an experimental basis from  1920. It had its commercial introduction  at the Berlin Radio Exhibition of 1935. Early BBC broadcasts utilized a  recording breakthrough made by  two Reichs-rundfunk Gesellschaeft (German radio) engineers. Drs. Otto von Braurmuhl and Walter Weber. They discovered that  when  mixing a very high frequency signal with the audio during recording, the reproduced signals were so good that they could be accepted as  live performance.

NBBS as the BBC was then known,  used captured commercial transmitters in Luxembourg, Belgium and Scandinavia, depended upon  tape for almost  all of its programming. The same concert could be broadcast at the same time  from all stations.

In September of 1944, the Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company in St. Paul (known today as 3M), already producing coated "Scotch" pressure-sensitive tapes, was contacted by the Brush Development Company of Cleveland, Ohio. The Brush company was "interested in obtaining tapes coated with an emulsion containing a uniform dispersion of ferromagnetic powder". The Brush Company, under a special Navy Department research contract with 3M was interested in  launching  magnetic tape.

The first Experiment

Brush would supply the powder if 3M would put it onto  a  stripe of tape  for testing. This assignment ws given  to Dr. Wilfred Wetzel who did not know of the work  done in Germany. The oxide supplied by Brush was just  iron, and that once put on  a paper backing it rusted further , and its  chemical and magnetic properties changed.

 3M did not have a  recorder; or  a recording head.   Brush was being  secretive about what the  product would be used for. Wetzel found  that the coating needed  to be smooth.  If  not it would  wear out the head. Wetzel directed  3M scientists to try  techniques for gluing the particles on quarter-inch strips of paper eight to ten inches long. The samples were then mailed to Brush.

No one in the United States had yet made a magnetic tape recorder. (1944)  Wire recorders, using the Poulson's principals of magnetic recording  ( which he patented in 1898 ), were used for business dictation. The U.S. Navy Department, used  them to record   German U-Boat radio messages. They needed better quality recording was needed, and that was the purpose of the Navy Department research contract with  Brush.

By 1944, the World War II Allies knew about  a  magnetic recorder developed by German engineers. This  recorder  used an iron-powder-coating on a  paper tape.  It had a better sound quality than phonograph discs. A  Signal Corps technician, Jack Mullin, joined  a scavenging team directed  to come after  the retreating German army and pick up  o electronics items. Mullin  found parts of recorders,  two working tape recorders and  tapes in  Radio Frankfurt studios  in Bad Bauheim.

At the same time 3M physicists and chemists were creating for Brush and the Navy a coated tape with a smooth surface and uniform dispersion of ferromagnetic powder.  This tape could be pulled  over a magnetic head to record electromagnetic signals without being damaged. Their mission was the creation of  a tape for high fidelity magnetic recording. This had been accomplished by 1945

Post War

When the war ended in  August of 1945, the Brush Company told  3M that the  Navy Department contract work was done. Magnetic tape development was to be continued   with Brush. Even though there had been no profits  3M chose  to finance its own research.

3M did not want to remain merely a producer. Other companies were also  experimenting with tape, others wanted to produce recorders. 3M added  magnetic tape to the its products.

A 3M physicist Wetzel believed in a  broad  market for magnetic tape. He  also believed  that television pictures could also be recorded.  Tape having higher density would be required.

Brush was working on  a tape recorder to display  in New York in January of 1946. At 3M work was speeded up with many improvements.  Large usable quantities of tape were ready by May 1946. This tape was found to be  helpful by  Jack Mullin.

Bing Crosby Becomes Involved

On May 16, 1946, Mullin was to speak at the regular meeting of the San Francisco chapter of the Institute of Radio Engineers. This meeting was  at the studios of radio station KFRC.  German tape recording equipment was on the program. Mullin played recordings. He was well received.

 Frank Healy of Bing Crosby Enterprises was present at that demonstration. Healy thought  that Mullin and his machines might provide the solution for one of Bing Crosby's problems.  At the time  all radio  programming, at least on best networks  live. Disk recorded shows were thought to be  inferior.  Crosby wanted to avoid live performance. He did not perform in the  1945-46 season only to return with the promise of pre recording of programs.

The disk recording process was expensive, time-consuming. The sound quality was poor.

 In August, 1947, Mullin was directed to  record the first Crosby show of the upcoming season on the new German equipment. , Healy and McKenzie recorded the same program on disc. :

Mullin's Account

"The most unforgettable moment in my life was the one when I stood before my Magnetophone tape recorder and pressed the Playback button for the first time in the presence of Bing Crosby, John Scott Trotter, and Bing's producers, Bill Morrow and Murdo McKenzie. Everything was at stake. By invitation, I had been present with my colleague, Bill Palmer, to record the first radio show of the 1947-'48 season in the NBC/ABC studio complex in Hollywood. And now we were to hear the result of our efforts and be judged by perhaps the most critical ears in the world of radio and recording."

"Prior to our invitation to come to Hollywood from San Francisco to record, and possibly, just possibly, to edit our tape into a complete show, the producers had looked into every alternate means of recording sound that showed any promise of success. Mostly, these boiled down to variations of disc recording methods and photographic sound-on-film systems. I am sure ABC held out little hope for success in testing our apparatus".

"The result of the (very successful) demonstration was that the Crosby people wanted me to stay right there and go through an editing process, to make a broadcast out of it. I did," Mullin told a reporter, "and they saw how easy it was with tape. The next thing I knew, I had a job recording the Bing Crosby Show for the rest of the season."

Mullin only had  two rebuilt German recorders and only 50 reels of  tape..3M's work would make it all possible.

T he 3M tape actually  was "too good" for the  machines. It had higher coercivity which the tape machines could not handle.  Ampex Corporation was trying to complete work on recording machines for the American Broadcasting Company. Crosby convinced network to buy the machines, which were copied from the German originals.

At first when  Kraft Music Hall was broadcast  on  October 1, 1947,  the  broadcast used  a 16" disc instead of Mullin's tape recording. McKenzie used  Mullin's tape to put the show together but, put it on a disc for broadcast. After a few shows the show was broadcast  from the tape. A musician was on stand by if the tape broke.

Eventually it was found that the tape did not break! ABC switched  to tape and created  two copies of each program and had them running on two decks at the same time..

Tape becomes Popular

In April 1948 the government mandated switch to daylight savings time prompted the radio stations to use tape. This way broadcast could be at the same time across time zones.

 Scotch 100 magnetic tape was introduced  in 1947.  This helped start the tape  recording tape industry in the United States. Early broadcast tape recorders in 1947 used  speeds of 30ips. In 1949,  7 1/2ips, was adopted with improvement in quality. 

As late as  November 22, 1963, ABC  was still not confident about the archival quality of tape and continued to record important events on disk.

 

 

History of the Period

The 1950s are noted in United States history

Pre-Colonial America
See Pre-Colonial America article.

Native Americans arrived on the North American continent in about the 9th millennium BC, give or take 5,000 years, and dominated the area until the influx of European settlers began in the early 17th century.

Colonial America (1493-1776)
For details, see the main Colonial America article.

Colonial America was defined by ongoing battles with Native Americans, a severe labor shortage which birthed forms of unfree labor such as slavery and indentured servitude, and a British policy of benign neglect which permitted the development of an American spirit and culture which was distinct from that of its European founders.
..... Click the link for more information.
as a time of both compliance and conformity and also of rebellion. Major U.S. events during the decade included:

* The Korean War
Military history of North Korea
Military history of South Korea
Military history of Australia
Military history of Canada
Military history of China
Military history of the United Kingdom
Military history of the United States
Conflict Korean War
Date 1950Ė1953
Place Korean peninsula
Result Continued Partition of Korea
Combatants
South Korea,
United States of America, Australia,Canada, United Kingdom, Turkey, other allies North Korea,
Chinese volunteers, Soviet Union
Strength
unknown unknown
Casualties
136,935 U.S. soldiers 600,000 Koreans
..... Click the link for more information. (1950
Years:
1947 1948 1949 - 1950 - 1951 1952 1953
Decades:
1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s
Centuries:
19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1950 in art
1950 in aviation
1950 in film
1950 in literature
1950 in music
1950 in radio
1950 in science
1950 in sports
1950 in television List of state leaders in 1950
List of religious leaders in 1950
List of international organization leaders in 1950
..... Click the link for more information. -1953 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday (click on link for the calendar).

Years:
1950 1951 1952 - 1953 - 1954 1955 1956
Decades:
1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s
Centuries:
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1953 in art
1953 in aviation
1953 in film
1953 in literature
1953 in music
1953 in radio
1953 in science
1953 in sports
1953 in television
..... Click the link for more information. );
* The election of Second World War World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the world's nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing approximately 55.5 million lives. The war was fought between two groups of powers: the alliance of the British Commonwealth, United States, Soviet Union, China, and the governments-in-exile of France, Poland, and other occupied European countriesócollectively known as the Allies; and the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan and their allies ócollectively known as the Axis.
..... Click the link for more information. hero and retired Army Gen. General a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. The title is used by land and sometimes air forces. In the navies of the world, the rank of Admiral is equivalent. Its equivalent rank in the Royal Air Force and air forces of many Commonwealth Countries is Air Chief Marshal. A "general officer" refers to any rank of general.
..... Click the link for more information. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Order: 34th President
Term of Office: January 20, 1953 -
January 20, 1961
Predecessor: Harry S. Truman
Successor: John F. Kennedy
Date of Birth Tuesday, October 14, 1890
Place of Birth: Denison, Texas
Date of Death: Friday, March 28, 1969
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
First Lady: Mamie Eisenhower
Profession: soldier
Political Party: Republican
Vice President: Richard Nixon
..... Click the link for more information. as President

For the rock band, see Presidents of the United States of America.

The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. Under the U.S. Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of the federal government and commander in chief of the armed forces.

Because of the superpower status of the United States, the American President is often dubbed "the most powerful person on earth" and the current occupant is often one of the world's best-known figures. During the Cold War, the President was sometimes referred to as "the leader of the free world," a phrase that is still occasionally invoked today.
..... Click the link for more information.
in 1952
Years:
1949 1950 1951 - 1952 - 1953 1954 1955
Decades:
1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s
Centuries:
19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1952 in art
1952 in aviation
1952 in film
1952 in literature
1952 in music
1952 in radio
1952 in science
1952 in sports
1952 in television
1952 in Canada
..... Click the link for more information. and his subsequent re-election in 1956;
* The Red Scare and anti-Communist hysteria of the McCarthy era;
* The U.S. reaction to the 1957 launch by the Soviet Union of the Sputnik satellite, a major milepost of the Cold War.

Compliance and attempts at social perfection were hallmarks of the 1950s domestic scene, where the two-parent families in which the father worked in industry and the mother remained home as a homemaker were idealized in television programs such as Leave it to Beaver. Social undercurrents subverting this view were seen in movements such as beat poetry, rock and roll music, and in motion pictures such as Rebel Without a Cause, starring 1950s icon James Dean. In fact, Dean and rock star Elvis Presley are almost universally seen as 1950s icons, as is motion picture actress Marilyn Monroe. Television became almost universally available in the United States by the end of the decade, and its social effects have been debated from then until now.

One of the most influential and most highly critically-acclaimed of the many books about the era is The Fifties by journalist and author David Halberstam.

Events and trends
Technology

* United States tests the first fusion bomb. See History of nuclear weapons
* Sputnik, the first man-made satellite
* The De Havilland Comet enters service as the world's first jet airliner
* Charles Townes builds a maser in 1953 at Columbia University.

Science

* Urey-Miller experiment shows that under simulated conditions resembling those thought to have existed shortly after Earth first accreted, many of the basic organic molecules that form the building blocks of modern life are able to spontaneously form
* Francis Crick and James D. Watson discover the helical structure of DNA at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge
* Bruce Heezen discovers the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
* Polio Vaccine

War, peace and politics

* Korean War
* Red Scare, McCarthy Hearings
* Suez Crisis
* European Common Market founded.
* Warsaw pact founded.
* Hungarian revolution of 1956 brutally suppressed by Soviet Union's troops.
* Fidel Castro gains power in Cuba.

Economics

* "Economic miracle" in West Germany.

Culture, religion

* Brylcreem and other hair tonics have a period of popularity
* Television replaces radio as the dominant mass medium in industrialized countries.
* In the West, the generation traumatized by the Great Depression and World War II creates a culture with emphasis on normality and calm conformity.
* Juvenile delinquency said to be at unprecedented epidemic proportions in USA
* Traditional pop music reaches its climax; early Rock and roll music embraced by teenagers/youth culture while generally dismissed or condemned by older generation.
* Beatnik culture/ The Beat Generation
* Optimistic visions of semi-Utopian technological future including such devices as the flying car.
* The Day the Earth Stood Still hits movie theaters.
* Along with the appearance of the sentence Kilroy was here across the United States, graffiti as an art form develops, especially among urban African Americans; graffiti art eventually becomes one of the four elements of hip hop

Others

* Wartime Rationing ends in the United Kingdom

World leaders

* Chairman Mao Zedong (People's Republic of China)
* President Chiang Kai-shek (Republic of China on Taiwan)
* President Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)
* Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (India)
* Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion (Israel)
* Emperor Hirohito (Japan)
* Pope Pius XII
* Pope John XXIII
* Taoiseach John A. Costello (Ireland)
* Taoiseach Eamon de Valera (Ireland)
* Taoiseach Sean Lemass (Ireland)
* Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
* Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union)
* King George VI (United Kingdom)
* Queen Elizabeth II (United Kingdom)
* Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill (United Kingdom)
* Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden (United Kingdom)
* Prime Minister Harold Macmillan (United Kingdom)
* Prime Minister Robert Menzies (Australia)
* President Harry S. Truman (United States)
* President Dwight D. Eisenhower (United States)
* Chancellor Konrad Adenauer (West Germany)
* President Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)

Entertainers

* Abbott and Costello
* Jack Benny
* Chuck Berry
* Marlon Brando
* Jimmy Dean
* Ava Gardner
* Audrey Hepburn
* Alfred Hitchcock
* Buddy Holly
* Jerry Lewis
* Dean Martin
* Groucho Marx
* Marilyn Monroe
* Paul Newman
* Elvis Presley
* Little Richard
* James Stewart
* Gale Storm
* Elizabeth Taylor
* John Wayne
* Jack Webb

See also: List of rock and roll albums in the 1950s

Sports figures

* Alberto Ascari (Italian racing driver)
* Roger Bannister (English track and field athlete)
* Yogi Berra (U.S. baseball player)
* Jim Brown (U.S. American football player)
* Maureen Connolly (U.S. tennis player)
* Otto Graham (U.S. American football player)
* Juan Manuel Fangio (Argentinian racing driver)
* Gordie Howe (Canadian ice hockey player)
* Mickey Mantle (U.S. baseball player)
* Rocky Marciano (U.S. boxer)
* Stanley Matthews (English soccer player)
* Willie Mays (U.S. baseball player)
* George Mikan (U.S. basketball player)
* Stan Musial (U.S. baseball player)
* Ferenc PuskŠs (Hungarian soccer player)
* Maurice Richard (Canadian ice hockey player)
* Sugar Ray Robinson (U.S. boxer)
* Johnny Unitas (U.S. American football player)
* Lev Yashin (Russian soccer player)


 

 

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Activity

Ask someone who had children during the 1950s if they have a tape of their children or of an event in their life. Play the tape and talk about what it meant to be able to record history in their own home. Ask the informant how often they listen to home recordings. Can you record your history onto a CD directly with the players that most people own? Why were they not made to record?

Find the instructions for setting up and threading a reel to reel tape into the player.

Arrange to play a stereo lp on a portable record player.

Then play a stereo magnetic tape.

Would the quality of sound difference be worth the trouble loading the tape?

How long would a tape play if played on the slowest speed?

How long would an LP play?

 

 

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Songs of the Period of the Reel to Real Magnetic Tape System

Note that the reel to reel system was also very important for recordings of classical music and that it continued in use well past this period of introduction and initial popularity.

1949

Riders In the Sky-- Vaughn Monroe
That Lucky Old Sun-- Frankie Laine
Cruising Down the River-- Blue Barron (also Russ Morgan)
A Little Bird Told Me-- Evelyn Knight
Mule Train-- Frankie Laine
Some Enchanted Evening-- Perry Como
Youíre Breaking My Heart-- Vic Damone
Slippiní Around-- Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely
Forever and Ever-- Russ Morgan
A Youíre Adorable-- Perry Como


 

1950

The Tennessee Waltz-- Patti Page
Goodnight, Irene-- Weavers with Gordon Jenkins
The Third Man Theme-- Anton Karas (also Guy Lombardo)
If I Knew You Were Cominí Iídíve Baked a Cake-- Eileen Barton
Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy-- Red Foley
Mona Lisa-- Nat King Cole
All My Love-- Patti Page
I Can Dream, Canít I?-- Andrews Sisters
The Thing-- Phil Harris
Harbor Lights-- Sammy Kaye



 

1951

Cry-- Johnnie Ray
Because of You-- Tony Bennett
How High the Moon-- Les Paul & Mary Ford
Sin-- Eddy Howard
If-- Perry Como
Come On-A My House-- Rosemary Clooney
Cold, Cold Heart-- Tony Bennett
Too Young-- Nat King Cole
Be My Love-- Mario Lanza
Mockiní Bird Hill-- Les Paul & Mary Ford


 

1952

You Belong to Me-- Jo Stafford
Wheel of Fortune-- Kay Starr
I Went to Your Wedding-- Patti Page
Auf Wiedersehín Sweetheart-- Vera Lynn
Kiss of Fire-- Georgia Gibbs
Why Donít You Believe Me-- Joni James
Blue Tango-- Leroy Anderson
Half As Much-- Rosemary Clooney
Glow-Worm-- Mills Brothers
Slow Poke-- Pee Wee King



 

1953

Vaya Con Dios-- Les Paul & Mary Ford
Song from "Moulin Rouge"-- Percy Faith
Rags to Riches-- Tony Bennett
The Doggie In the Window-- Patti Page
You You You-- Ames Brothers
Iím Walking Behind You-- Eddie Fisher
Till I Waltz Again with You-- Teresa Brewer
Donít Let the Stars Get In Your Eyes-- Perry Como
No Other Love-- Perry Como
St. George and the Dragonet-- Stan Freberg



 

1954

Sh-Boom-- Crew-Cuts
Little Things Mean a Lot-- Kitty Kallen
Oh! My Papa-- Eddie Fisher
Wanted-- Perry Como
Mr. Sandman-- Chordettes
Make Love to Me-- Jo Stafford
Hey There-- Rosemary Clooney
Secret Love-- Doris Day
This Ole House-- Rosemary Clooney
I Need You Now-- Eddie Fisher



 

1955

Rock Around the Clock-- Bill Haley & His Comets
Sixteen Tons-- Tennessee Ernie Ford
Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing-- Four Aces
The Yellow Rose of Texas-- Mitch Miller
Autumn Leaves-- Roger Williams
Learniní the Blues-- Frank Sinatra
Ainít That a Shame-- Fats Domino
Moments to Remember-- Four Lads
I Hear You Knocking-- Gale Storm
A Blossom Fell-- Nat King Cole



 

1956

Donít Be Cruel/Hound Dog-- Elvis Presley
Singing the Blues-- Guy Mitchell
The Wayward Wind-- Gogi Grant
Heartbreak Hotel-- Elvis Presley
Rock and Roll Waltz-- Kay Starr
The Poor People of Paris-- Les Baxter
Memories Are Made of This-- Dean Martin
Love Me Tender-- Elvis Presley
My Prayer-- Platters
Lisbon Antigua-- Nelson Riddle



 

1957

All Shook Up-- Elvis Presley
Love Letters In the Sand-- Pat Boone
Jailhouse Rock-- Elvis Presley
Teddy Bear-- Elvis Presley
April Love-- Pat Boone
Young Love-- Tab Hunter
Tammy-- Debbie Reynolds
Honeycomb-- Jimmie Rodgers
Wake Up Little Susie-- Everly Brothers
You Send Me-- Sam Cooke



 

1958

At the Hop-- Danny & the Juniors
Itís All In the Game-- Tommy Edwards
The Purple People Eater-- Sheb Wooley
All I Have to Do Is Dream-- Everly Brothers
Tequila-- Champs
Donít-- Elvis Presley
Volare-- Domenico Modugno
Sugartime-- McGuire Sisters
Heís Got the Whole World In His Hands-- Laurie London
The Chipmunk Song-- David Seville/The Chipmunks
.

 

1959

Mack the Knife-- Bobby Darin
The Battle of New Orleans-- Johnny Horton
Venus-- Frankie Avalon
Stagger Lee-- Lloyd Price
The Three Bells-- The Browns
Lonely Boy-- Paul Anka
Come Softly to Me-- Fleetwoods
Smoke Gets In Your Eyes-- Platters
Heartaches By the Number-- Guy Mitchell
Sleep Walk-- Santo & Johnny

 

 

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Restoration and Parts Assistance

We hope to be able to direct you to sources for restoration and parts. If you know of a source send us an e.mail at:

cbladey@verizon.net

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Bibliography

Mullin, John, Discovering Magnetic Tape,Broadcast Engineering, Intertec Publishing, Overland Park, KS, May 1979.

Ziff, Richard, Magnetic Tape's Impact on Broadcasting. Broadcast Engineering, Intertec Publishing, Overland Park, KS, May 1979.

John T Mullin, "Creating the Craft of Tape Recording", High Fidelity Magazine, Vol ?, Nr ?, pp 62...67 (1976 April).

Harold Lindsay, "Magnetic Recording, Part 1", db Magazine, Vol 11, Nr 12, pp 38...44 (1977 December).

Harold Lindsay, "Magnetic Recording, Part 2", db Magazine, Vol 12, Nr 1, pp 40...44 (1978 January).

Peter Hammar and Don Ososke, "The Birth of the German Magnetophon Tape Recorder 1928...1945", db Magazine, Vol 16, Nr 3, Cover photo, pp 47...52 (1982 March).

Peter Hammar, "In Memoriam: Harold Lindsay", AES Journal Vol 30, Nr 9, pp 691, 692 (1982 Sept).

Friedrich Karl Engel, "1888-1988: A Hundred Years of Magnetic Sound Recording", AES Journal, Vol 36, Issue 3, pp 170...178 (1988) [18 references]

"Some Possible Forms of Phonograph"  Oberlin Smith, 1888

Heinz H. K. Thiele, "Magnetic Sound Recording in Europe up to 1945", AES Journal, Vol 36, Issue 5, pp: 396...408 (1988)

Friedrich Karl Engel, "Magnetic Tape -- From the Early Days to the Present", AES Journal, Vol 36, Issue 7/8, pp 606...616 (1988)

Rudolph MŁller, "On Improvements of Magnetic Tape Shown by Measurements on Early and Newer Tapes", AES Journal, Vol 36, Issue 10, pp 802...820 (1988)

Peter Hammar, "Jack Mullin: The Man and His Machines", AES Journal, Vol 37, Issue 6, pp 490...512 (1989)

S.J. Begun, "Magnetic Recording", Rinehart Books Inc, 1949

Marvin Camras (ed), "Magnetic Tape Recording", Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, (1985)

Marvin Camras, "Magnetic Recording Handbook", Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, (1988)

Daniel, Mee and Clark (editors), Magnetic Recording, The First 100 Years (1999)

S. J. Begun (M. Clark, ed), Magnetic Recording: The Ups and Downs of a Pioneer The memoirs of Semi Joseph Begun (2000)

 

 

 

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Helpful Links

History of Magnetic Tape
http://www.tvhandbook.com/History/History_tape.htm

http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/bibliographies/histmagrecbib.html

Do you have a good link?

we will add it in-

send it to us at:

cbladey@verizon.net

 

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Tour of My Wollensak Magnetic Tape Recorder Model T500

Overview closed.
Front/handle view
Side view
Back view
Bottom
overview open
detail open
the counter and speed indicator
Controls
Head area
with tape in play position
back plate showing model and serial
back plate left showing plug area.

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Recent Prices from E.bay

3M WOLLENSAK PORTABLE REEL TO REEL RECORDER TAPE DECK $21.53 3Jul-25 09:37

Wollensak T-1500 Tube 4-Track/Stereo TAPE RECORDER Deck  Portable reel-to-reel deck w/ cover and all accessories  $127.50 14Jul-25 21:05

VINTAGE WOLLENSAK 3M 1500 REEL TAPE RECORDER $14.502Jul-28 19:45

3M comp. Wollensak Reel-to-Reel Tape Recorder. Still works like a charm and includes everything.
$150.001Aug-03 07

Wollensak T-1515-4 Tape Recorder, Cover, Chords & Box! $39.004Aug-07 20:00

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